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Symposium Proceedings


Note: Presentations are grouped by the student’s area of research (based on the faculty mentor’s academic department), not the student’s academic major.


Poster Session C: 

11:00 am - 12:00 pm

Agricultural Economics; Communication Sciences and Disorders; Community Health Sciences, Counseling and Counseling Psychology; Design, Housing and Merchandising; English; Finance; Hospitality and Tourism Management; Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation; Languages and Literatures; Media and Strategic Communications; Political Science; and Psychology (31 posters)




C-01       Wanyi Liao

Research Collaborators:  Lixia Lambert, Courtney Bir

Research Presentation Title:  Sketching the Residential Water Rate Structure in Oklahoma’s Rural Water Districts

Faculty Research Mentor:  Lixia Lambert, Agricultural Economics


Water sustains Oklahoma’s agricultural, manufacturing, energy sectors, and its citizens. Oklahoma is also the first state in the nation to set a freshwater use goal for 2060 – to not use more water than used in 2012. Increased water demands from population growth and economic development will make adhering to this water use cap difficult, necessitating creative policy interventions. With respect to household water use, Pricing water to encourage conservation is considered one of the many tools that community planners can adopt to manage water use. Efficient water rates could encourage consumers to save water and communities to adopt water saving technologies. However, water rates can sometimes be deceiving because they include delivery, filtration and maintenance fees. Some districts may use these rates as a hidden tax to increase funds to operate other aspects of the district. Some utility suppliers often only know the value of water itself when they run out of potable supplies and are forced to drill or go to the market. These companies may be paying a distorted price when they purchase water from the market. This research aims to conduct research on water rate structures across Oklahoma communities. Monthly water cost to households is useful information for understanding current water rate structures among different public water supply systems. We analyzed water rate structures in rural water districts of Oklahoma counties and its correlation with rurality, sources of water, and population served. Results can improve understanding of residential water cost gaps between counties and will be useful for community planning.


C-02       Huayi Zhao

Research Collaborators:  Lixia Lambert, Hannah E. Shear

Research Presentation Title:  Red, White, and Blueberries: What is Driving the U.S. Import of Blueberries?

Faculty Research Mentor:  Lixia Lambert, Agricultural Economics


Globally, the United States (U.S.) is the largest blueberry producer and the 5th largest exporter, with 38 states commercially growing blueberry and accounted for more than 50% of the total world production. The U.S. is also the world’s largest importer of blueberries, with blueberry imports increasing by more than 60% between 2015-2019. Imported blueberries are mainly from three countries, Mexico, Peru, and Chile. This increase in blueberry imports has negatively impacted the U.S. blueberry producers’ market share and profitability. In 2020, the U.S. International Trade Commission conducted an investigation to determine if the large quantity of blueberry imports cause serious injury to U.S. blueberry producers. Although the investigation concluded no serious injury, it is important to understand the main drivers pushing imports, and what U.S. blueberry producers could do to cope with the challenge and pressure from the increasing imports. This research aims to analyze the factors affecting the U.S. importation of blueberries, including the U.S. domestic blueberry production, prices of blueberries and strawberries, population, consumer price index, blueberry sales value, and farm labor salary, using linear regression model and data from 1989 to 2020. Results provide information on correlations between blueberry imports and the factors mentioned previously. With improved understanding of the main drivers of blueberry importation, we could better inform domestic producers’ decision making and marketing strategies.


C-03       Bayleigh Miller

Research Collaborators:  Sabiha Parveen, Danae Stidham

Research Presentation Title:  Impacts of COVID-19 on Speech-Language Pathologists and People with Communication Disorders

Faculty Research Mentor:  Sabiha Parveen, Communication Sciences and Disorders


Different healthcare facilities, schools, and universities have had to adopt several safety and social distancing guidelines due to COVID-19 since March 2020. The contagious nature of COVID-19 has led to significant challenges in serving people with medical conditions and those with newly diagnosed or existing communication disorders. To the best of our knowledge, our study was the first to examine changes adopted by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) based in Oklahoma due to COVID-19 and different personal and professional challenges experienced by this group of healthcare workers during this unprecedented pandemic. Oklahoma currently has close to 2500 licensed SLPs who serve a total state population of 3.98 million people. A majority of SLPs, especially in the school and healthcare settings, already experienced heavy caseloads and challenges with providing quality care due to lack of time before the pandemic. Therefore, the current project examined the impact of COVID-19 among SLPs as they transitioned from in-person therapy prior to the pandemic to a combination of in-person and online therapy or teletherapy services. The project was approved by the Institution Review Board of Oklahoma State University. All SLP participants were female and represented different work settings within Oklahoma including schools (25.5%), outpatient clinics (19.6%), in-patient rehab (9.8%), home health (7.6%), nursing home (3.9%) and others (including university clinic, mobile MBS clinic; 21.6%). The mean age of participants was 44.5 years and the average years of work experience was 18 years. The poster presentation will include a summary of different challenges as well as some of positive experiences of the SLPs during this period. In addition to SLPs, the current project also interviewed people with communication disorders or their family members to determine the effect of COVID-19 on access and availability of speech therapy services. The poster presentation will include a summary of some of the challenges as well as positive changes that these participants experienced due to COVID-19. Finally, the study will provide insights and recommendations that all of us keep in mind as we continue to navigate through the pandemic and work towards improving service delivery in underserved and rural areas of Oklahoma.


C-04       Nancy Romano Flores

Research Collaborators:  Sabiha Parveen

Research Presentation Title:  Role of Diet on people with Parkinson Disease

Faculty Research Mentor:  Sabiha Parveen, Communication Sciences and Disorders


Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative condition seen in people over the age of 65 years. According to the Parkinson's Foundation, about 1.3 million people are likely to develop PD within the United States by the year 2030. Parkinson Disease is a multimodality disorder that is associated with motor, non-motor, and communication changes. It is also associated with increased financial and economic burden due to the medical costs and other disease related complications. One line of research, specifically, has looked at how diet or related factors may provide a protective function or help delay the disease progression for people with PD. The current proposal includes a summary of existing literature about effects of diet on disease progression and symptom severity in individuals with PD. The author looked through different databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, OSU library, and ERIC) to identify relevant articles. Articles that were found ranged in publication date between 1998 - 2021. The selected articles represented different geographical regions and included participants with PD with different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Most participants in these research studies ranged between 40-90 years old. Diet had a significant effect across the studies, with the Mediterranean diet showing the most promising results. There is some evidence that the Mediterranean diet has some positive effect on dealing with disease progression in people with PD. The poster presentation will include an overall summary of existing research and clinical implications of different dietary modifications, diet related preferences, and possible benefits of certain diets among people with PD.


C-05       Bailey Smith and Mary Vang

Research Presentation Title:  Building the Deaf Experience, Deaf Expression Project

Faculty Research Mentor:  Valerie Freeman, Communication Sciences and Disorders


This presentation introduces the Deaf Experience/Deaf Expression (DXDX) Project, a growing publicly-available collection of video interviews with deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) adults, teens, and their families. It is created as a resource for parents, educators, and health care professionals as they make decisions for young children about assistive devices, sign language, and school options. Interviews ask about social, linguistic, relational, and educational experiences to provide missing information about the effects of early choices on DHH children’s quality of life. So far, 20 undergraduates have contributed to the project through a series of teams. The project’s student team consists of several groups who work on different tasks for the project. These teams include recruiting and scheduling, interviewing, annotating, thematic analysis, social media, captioning, video editing, database, and presentation team. The recruiting and scheduling team focuses on contacting individuals with hearing loss interested in participating in interviews and scheduling those interviews. The interview team conducts the interviews over zoom, lasting around an hour, completed in spoken or sign language, with an interpreter. After the interviews are conducted, the annotation team tags the interviews for specific topics. The thematic analysis team then uses these tags to locate common themes seen across the collection of interviews. The social media team works on marketing our project for potential participants and interested hearing loss communities by posting infographics and facts across different platforms. The video editing team then finds and edits clips of the interview that are then captioned and posted onto social media. The database team is currently working on creating the publicly searchable platform of video clips. The presentation team creates and presents posters and talks at local, state, and national conferences. The DXDX video corpus is a new resource to fill a gap of information for parents and professionals about the socio-emotional effects of decisions they make for children with hearing loss. The project strengthens ties within the community and will increase public understanding of hearing loss, enabling parents, educators, and health care professionals to make more informed decisions and advocate for the needs of DHH children, including quality of life.


C-06       Jarod Lorenz

Research Collaborators:  Elysia Grant, Heontae Kim, Ho Han

Research Presentation Title:  Prevalence of substance use and food insecurity among gender nonconforming college students

Faculty Research Mentor:  Ho Han, Community Health Sciences, Counseling and Counseling Psychology


Background: Young adults are at the highest risk of experiencing food insecurity and substance use. Such experiences disproportionately occur among gender nonconforming students in the college environment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of food insecurity and substance use among gender nonconforming college students in comparison with cisgender counterparts. Methods: Secondary data from 102,802 nationally representative undergraduates responding to the Fall 2020 and Spring 2021 American College Health Association’s National College Health Assessments was used. In this context, gender nonconformity refers to behavior or gender expression that does not match masculine or feminine gender roles. The five most commonly abused substances on college campuses including alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, and prescription stimulants were selected for the analyses of substance use. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between substance use and food insecurity, and gender identification. Results: Analysis revealed that an estimated 4.08% reported nonconforming gender.  After controlling for confounding factors (e.g., age, race, years in school, enrollment status, visa status, relations, and affiliation of fraternity/sorority), gender nonconforming students had significantly higher odds of using hallucinogens, cannabis, prescription stimulants, and cocaine (OR=1.87, 1.58, 1.32, and 1.24, respectively) compared to cisgender peers, and a significantly higher proportion of cannabis, cocaine, and hallucinogen users in gender nonconforming students reported consequent problems caused by their substance use (p<.001). Lastly, a significantly higher prevalence of food insecurity was found in gender nonconforming students after controlling for the covariates (p<.05). Conclusion: Gender nonconforming college students are at greater risk for substance use and food insecurity compared to cisgender students. Our findings suggest the need for effective prevention programs and treatment strategies that are specific to gender nonconforming college students for addressing the disparities in substance use and food insecurity.


C-07       Tatum Johnson

Research Collaborators:  June Park

Research Presentation Title:  The ‘drop model’ in the fashion industry: Examining retail strategy and long-term sustainability effects

Faculty Research Mentor:  June Park, Design Housing and Merchandising


The ‘drop model’ in the fashion industry is a brand’s strategy which consists of releasing a new product or collection at a specific time in limited quantities (Elven, 2018). Product drops impose a sense of urgency and scarcity to increase sales by making customers buy the product right away at full prices; it also creates “brand excitement as a method to build consumer affinity” (Larsson, 2020). The research objectives of this study were to 1) examine the impact the drop model on fashion brands’ business strategies and sustainability; 2) investigate the fashion brands’ current business strategies of drop model including product. Development, marketing communications, and supply chain; and 3) evaluate how the drop model could be compared with traditional business models such as fast fashion and how fashion brands should move forward in the coming years. The study’s methodology included a content analysis of three current brands utilizing the drop model. Results and implications are presented.


C-08       Alyssa Oates

Research Presentation Title:  An Assessment of Student Stress Levels and Information Retention Capabilities in Traditional versus Biophilic Classrooms

Faculty Research Mentor:  Aditya Jayadas, Design, Housing, and Merchandising


C-09       Jordan Burks

Research Collaborators:  Stacy Takacs

Research Presentation Title:  Beyond Nuclear Wessels: The Historical and Symbolic Implications of Star Trek's Mr. Chekov

Faculty Research Mentor:  Stacy Takacs, English


On average, students spend over thirteen years in school. So, it is vital for students to have a positive experience in their classrooms. The positive experience for students in a classroom can be enhanced by integrating biophilic design to increase connectivity to natural environments. The purpose of this study was to discover how the design of classrooms on a university campus, compared to classrooms designed with biophilic design elements, impacts stress levels and information retention capabilities of students utilizing those classrooms. Twenty-two participants (age 27.72 ± 10.07yrs) were recruited for the study, and they were given instructions to do specific tasks in two virtual reality (VR) classroom environments - Environment A (traditional classroom) and Environment B (biophilic classroom). Participants were required to put on a virtual reality headset and a heart rate monitor. The resting heart rate was recorded and used to normalize the heart rate data. An interview with open-ended questions and a survey with closed-ended questions were also administered after participants experienced each environment. A content analysis and a paired t-test was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis respectively. Based on the qualitative analysis, the themes identified for Environment A included lighting (feeling enclosed, sterile), work (less productive, isolating) and energy (stressed, no excitement). As for Environment B the themes included views (natural lighting, views to exterior), environment (comfort from materials, feeling of community) and work (more productive and creative). For the quantitative results, there was a statistically significant difference between the two environments for perceived comfort (p<0.05), stress levels (p<0.05) and normalized heart rates (p<0.05). While perceived comfort was rated higher for Environment B (the biophilic classroom), stress levels and the normalized heart rates were higher for Environment A (the traditional classroom). The findings suggest that there is a need for more biophilic design in classrooms, as it would be beneficial to students in the classroom and increase comfort, decrease stress, and promote the health and well-being of students.


C-10       Trey Finn

Research Collaborators:  Nancy Titus-Piersma

Research Presentation Title:  Commercial Property and Casualty Insurance Rates: Causes, Effects, and Outlooks

Faculty Research Mentor:  Joe Byers, Finance


Commercial property and casualty insurance rates are on the rise and have been for quite some time. This thesis will explore all areas of commercial insurance carriers and how their rates – and profits - have fluctuated over the past decade and a half, and also what kind of correlation there is between average premiums and carrier profits. I will analyze the effects of the 2008 financial crisis, the coronavirus pandemic, and other economic events on commercial P&C rates over the past 15 or so years. Aside from economic factors, I will also be analyzing external factors such as climate trends and social changes that could be affecting the bottom-line cost of insurance coverage. Based on these findings I will prepare a 10-year outlook on commercial insurance rates.


C-11       Erica Besch

Research Collaborators:  Lisa Slevitch

Research Presentation Title:  How to Successfully Sell Plant-Based Protein Products in a Carnivore State

Faculty Research Mentor:  Willie Tao, Hospitality and Tourism Management


Plant-based protein has become a more common interest with the increase in store bought options and brands. Plant-based diets are being considered for the health benefits and benefits to the environment. However, Oklahoma is still limited on its plant-based options and the customer perception of plant-based proteins. Selling plant-based proteins in a state that is heavily based on agriculture and populated with a majority of carnivores is a challenge to do successfully. The answer on how to do it the right way is unknown, there are some businesses that sell plant-based proteins and have success; however, there is no guide on what makes them successful. The purpose of this study is to explore the strategies and tactics of designing and marketing plant-based products. We have explored this through observation and data collection from a successful business that is selling plant-based products. The data was collected through a qualitative approach, using field observations and face-to-face in-depth interviews with business owners of a popular vegan venue in Oklahoma to evaluate the success factors for this specific business. The results revealed a variety of factors that caused the business in the study to become successful, including customer service, goal setting, social media marketing, branding, and product development. Effective social media marketing and house-made plant-based products were the main focus of the business owners that differentiated them from competition. If other businesses can replicate the marketing methods and gain leverage on social media platforms and create a unique product that emphasizes taste rather than health benefits, selling plant-based proteins in a carnivore state could become less of a challenge and could change the way that carnivores in this area view plant-based proteins. Future research could evaluate the differences of selling plant-based proteins in other areas compared to Oklahoma and identify other success factors as well as observing a variety of business models and product development.


C-12       Nick Garcia

Research Collaborators:  Jay Dawes

Research Presentation Title:  Comparison of selected recovery techniques on grip strength and endurance following a simulated rock-climbing static hang

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bert Jacobson, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation


Introduction: Due to the growing popularity of sports climbing and other grip strength dependent sports, there has been increasing interest in determining the best method for intermittent recovery during extended climbing bouts to help combat forearm and finger flexor fatigue. The two main methods utilized by climbers to do so are “shaking out” and passive stretching via wrist and finger extension. Presumably, these techniques are utilized to reduce the occluded arterial inflow brought upon by intramuscular pressure, which reduces oxygenation of the active muscles. Methods: Forty-five college-age males and females participated in this IRB approved study and were randomly assigned to three groups: “shaking out”, stretching, and resting (control) with the arms at the side. Prior to assessing maximal hang time, each participant’s grip strength was measured. Subsequently, each participant was asked to hang by the proximal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-5 for maximal time. Following the maximal hang time, the participants performed one of the three protocols for 30s and grip strength was again assessed, and a second maximal hang time was recorded. Data collected during the study was compared using repeating measures ANOVA with an alpha level set at p<0.05. Results: There were no significant differences among pre- grip strength results between the groups and no significant (p>0.05) differences from pre- to post grip strength assessments for any of the conditions (Table 1). However, the shake and stretch conditions recorded slightly larger post-test grip deficits (-13.3% and -13.1% respectively) than the rest condition (-8.1%). For maximal hang time no pre-hang significant (p>0.05) differences were found among the conditions. However, each condition registered significant (p<0.05) pre- to post-test changes (Table 2) but no significant differences were found between the conditions.  Conclusion: While the rest condition resulted in slightly less grip strength fatigue following maximal hang time, post-hang time was not affected by any of the conditions presented in this research. These results suggest that none of the protocols used in the current study is superior in reducing occlusion and restoring of muscle oxygenation. 


C-13       Mia Young

Research Collaborators:  Allen L. Redinger, Shawn M. Allen, Jennifer L. Russell, Bree S. Baker

Research Presentation Title:  A novel technique to assess body composition in NBA basketball players

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bree S. Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation


Background: Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) has been primarily used to assess bone mineral density for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. However, due to the technology’s precise measurements of bone, muscle, and fat mass, collegiate and professional sports teams have begun using it to assess body composition. Due to DXA table size restrictions, tall athletes often have either their head or feet

excluded from scans, reducing the user’s ability to accurately compare body composition scans over time, further reducing the power of DXA data in this cohort. Purpose: In conjunction with the OKC Thunder Basketball Organization we aimed to test a novel DXA scanning technique that would allow athletes >76 inches tall to have complete scans for serial assessments. Methods: Fifteen normal-height participants completed scans using the OKC Thunder’s DXA in Edmond, OK. Participants (male n=11; female n=4, aged 31.5±4.3 yrs) laid flat for two total body scans. Participants then completed a partial scan, scanning from the feet to just past the knee. Next, the second body scan was segmented from head to tibial plateau and pieced together with the partial scan that only included the feet to tibial plateau, providing a newly created total body scan. The coefficient of variation (CV%) was calculated for bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) between the two baseline scans to understand machine error rates. The CV% was also between the newly pieced together scan and the baseline scan. Results – The machine’s precision (CV%) under ideal conditions between the two full body scans was 1.2% for BMC (g), 1.1% for LM (g), and 3.1% for FM (g); comparison to the newly pieced together scan increased CV%’s by 0.6%, 0.2%, and 0.8%, respectively. Discussion: By piecing together a quick and easy distal leg scan with the routine total body scan, complete body scans were found to be with 1% accuracy compared to a complete total body scan. This novel scanning technique will allow practitioners who work with tall athletes to stop excluding body parts and begin providing accurate whole-body results that can be compared during and between NBA seasons.


C-14       Annisa Clark

Research Presentation Title:  The Correlation Between German Film and Germany's Social Politics

Faculty Research Mentor:  Jessica Resvick, Languages and Literatures


The Weimar Era in Germany was the period between 1918 and 1933, which was before the Nazi era and after World War I. Important films created during this time include The Golem, Metropolis, Nosferatu, and The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari is a 1920 Expressionist silent film that has strange and unnatural set designs, exaggerated angles, and dark themes. Many different film critics have analyzed this film, and Siegfried Kracauer famously argued that the version of Caligari that was ultimately made “glorified authority and convicted the antagonist.” He also states that “this revolutionary film had become a conformist one.” Kracauer makes this argument because an earlier draft of The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari was deeply critical of authority. He also compares Dr. Caligari, a hypnotist who runs an asylum, to Hitler, and the “will-less” German people to Cesare, a somnambulist who follows Dr. Caligari’s every order and commits murders. The first question I want to answer is: How do other aspects of the film enforce authority? For example, at one point a character sits far higher than other people and looks down on them while speaking. Additionally, most, if not all, of the characters sneak around to spy on and/or apprehend other characters. The second question I want to answer is: Are the characters’ habits of sneaking around and monitoring similar to the observational techniques used by the East German Secret Police (Stasi) many decades later? I will compare the observational techniques of the Stasi to the scenes of observation throughout the film. This comparison will show how the film foreshadows later forms of authoritarianism and extends Kracauer’s argument into a new political context.


C-15       Reagan Page

Research Collaborators:  Reagan Page

Research Presentation Title:  Water Scarcity and Ethnic Violence in Central Asia

Faculty Research Mentor:  Jonathan Ludwig, Languages and Literatures


Does water scarcity impact ethnic violence in Central Asia? This research will investigate the link between water scarcity and ethnic violence in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. There is no consensus in the previous research on the effect of water scarcity on ethnic violence. Some believe it increases violence; others believe that it decreases violence, while a third school claims that it has no effect. However, I propose that these schools are testing this question incorrectly. Instead of simply looking at the presence of water scarcity, we need to test whether or not violence is worsened when water scarcity is caused by climate shocks rather than when there is consistent scarcity. I expect that during periods of drought caused by climate shocks, incidents of ethnic violence in Central Asia will increase in frequency and severity. This will be tested through a region-level analysis examining precipitation and drought start and end points. As climate change increases water scarcity, this research will become important to minimize the damage of outbreaks of ethnic violence.


C-16       Kylie Hammack

Research Collaborators:  Holley Hansen

Research Presentation Title:  The Role of Gross Domestic Product and the Human Development Index in the Prediction of Political Unrest

Faculty Research Mentor:  Holley Hansen, Political Science


The purpose of this note is to examine the merits of GDP and HDI as predictors of political instability and, consequently, study their differences as measures of development. Empirically, predicting political unrest has been less about examining the specific ethnic, religious, or historical characteristics of a state and more about identifying as well as measuring the conditions within a state that favor unrest. These conditions, which include poverty, decreased economic growth, inconsistent government institutions, and small military establishments, are closely associated with, and impacted by, the development of a state. For this reason, the development indexes of GDP and HDI are uniquely poised to predict political unrest and their different approaches to measuring development stand to reveal what states ought to prioritize to be successful. Investigations into the relationships between political unrest, GDP, and HDI, are necessary to foretell political unrest as well as prevent it. For this reason, the findings of this note provide guidance regarding what aspects of development ought to be prioritized in order to limit political unrest.


C-17       Sloane Loges

Research Collaborators:  Holley Hansen

Research Presentation Title:  The Local Deployment of UN Peacekeeping:  Impact on Civilian Violence

Faculty Research Mentor:  Holley Hansen, Political Science


Is UN peacekeeping effective at the subnational level? One of the United Nations' central goals is a commitment to protecting civilians against violence. The United Nations has made a commitment to taking accountability in the Responsibility to Protect Doctrine in 2005 (Un Security Council 2006). Past research has corroborated the UN's effectiveness in protecting civilians. When the UN commits to allocating military and police forces to peacekeeping missions, there is a significant decline in civilian deaths (Bara and Hultman 2020). However, there is a critical gap in the literature surrounding UN peacekeeping missions at the subnational level. The research has proven that these missions work at the national level, but how vital is it to have military and police forces at the local, countryside level? By concluding whether or not a presence at the subnational level is necessary, peacekeepers can improve operations in the future. To test our hypotheses, we utilize peacekeeping data from the GEO-PKO dataset as our dependent variable and civilian death data from ACLED as our independent variable.


C-18       Riley Pritzlaff

Research Collaborators:  Rebekah Herrick

Research Presentation Title:  Legislating in the minority: An analysis of women's substantive representation in the Oklahoma State Legislature

Faculty Research Mentor:  Rebekah Herrick, Political Science


Women currently constitute approximately 20% of Oklahoma’s legislature, a very low proportion compared to other U.S. states. This statistic raises an important question in terms of substantive (policy) representation for women: how does women’s substantive representation occur when they constitute such a small proportion of policymakers? Scholars have hypothesized that substantive representation requires either a critical mass of women or critical actors to push legislation through to success. I propose instead that the answer to this question may lie in gendered patterns of collaboration among legislators. As such, I ask “What factors are associated with the success of bills addressing women’s issues?”  While I expect women to introduce most of the bills addressing issues affecting women’s issues, I also expect gendered authorship patterns to emerge vis-à-vis bills addressing these topics, particularly those that are passed into law. As such, I plan to answer this question by examining various factors that may impact the success of legislation, particularly legislation addressing women’s issues. These factors include the party, gender, and seniority of author(s)/coauthor(s), whether those individuals hold influential chamber leadership positions, whether the topic of the bill addresses a women’s issue directly, and the stage in the legislative process at which each bill ended. This data will be collected for all legislative sessions from 2019 to 2020.


C-19       Blayne Barker

Research Collaborators:  Vanessa Oliphant, Reagan Cole, Cassidy Armstrong

Research Presentation Title:  Media Involvement in the Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women/Girls (MMIWG) Epidemic

Faculty Research Mentor:  Ashley Cole, Psychology


The Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (MMIWG) epidemic was created to raise awareness about the high rates of violence against Indigenous women and girls. Media coverage for MMIWG survivors in United States and Canada remains lacking, as mainstream reporting is almost non-existent for Indigenous women and girls. Out of 506 MMIWG cases, only one-quarter were reported by local, regional, or national media (UIHI, 2018). These victims are commonly overshadowed by other cases comprised of non-Hispanic White (NHW) women who go missing. In Canada’s local press, missing and murdered NHW women were referred to 511 times compared to 82 times for Indigenous women (Gilchrist, 2010). Further, Indigenous women and girls who are abuse survivors and are reported in the media are usually depicted in negative and stereotypical contexts like sex-work and criminal behavior, which is in stark contrast to their NHW counterparts. However, advocates of the MMIWG epidemic have created increased social media exposure by sharing survivors’ stories. During an 11-month study using data from Twitter, over 107,400 tweets included #MMIW and #MMIWG; these hashtags were used to shift perceptions of Indigenous women/girls and to apply political pressure to increasing news coverage of current rates of MMIWG (Moeke-Pickering et al., 2018). Increasing Indigenous representation and exposure via the media creates the opportunity to generate discussions, encourage activism, and ultimately, promote systemic-level changes for justice among Indigenous women and girls. The purpose of this poster presentation is to highlight the impact of media involvement in relation to the MMIWG epidemic.


C-20       Abbi Bellatti

Research Collaborators:  Zsofia Cohen

Research Presentation Title:  Examining the relationship between positive parenting and adolescent mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

Faculty Research Mentor:  Kara Kerr, Psychology


Anxiety-related disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders in children (Courtney et al., 2020). Already, increases in symptoms of these disorders have been observed since the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic. With the loss of contact with peers, children rely now more than ever on their parents in times of stress. A child’s relationship with their parents and perception of their parenting has been known to be related to the etiology of psychopathology (Wei & Kendall, 2014). Based on the findings of previous research, data from the Dyadic Inter-Brain Signaling (DIBS) study was utilized to assess whether adolescents’ perception of positive parenting by their parent was related to an increase of anxiety and depressive symptoms after the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic. The sample included 40 parent-adolescent dyads (adolescent age range = 14-16 years). Data is currently available from a pre-pandemic baseline assessment of these dyads as well as from a follow-up after the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic. Parents and adolescents each completed their respective versions of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) at baseline. Children also completed the child version of the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Disorders (SCARED) along with the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ), a measure of depressive symptoms, at baseline and follow-up (spring/summer 2020). We used the APQ subscale on positive parenting (APQ-Pos) to complete a series of bivariate correlations. These were performed in SPSS to determine if perceived positive parenting scores predicted change in adolescent anxiety (SCARED) and depressive (MFQ) symptoms after the onset of the pandemic. No effects were found for relationships between perceived positive parenting (parent or child report) and anxiety symptoms (all rs < .10). Small effects were found for the relationship between parent APQ-Pos scores and changes in MFQ (r=0.15) scores over time. Medium effects were found for the relationship between child APQ-Pos scores and changes in MFQ over time (r=-0.22). No effects were statistically significant. These results suggest that a positive parenting may serve as a protective factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents during the pandemic and prompts further research in the area.


C-21       Elli Billingsley

Research Collaborators:  E F Billingsley, B J Hahn, D E Deros, K M Nage, D M Grant

Research Presentation Title:  The Effects of Negative Imagery on Trait Anxiety and Reaction Times

Faculty Research Mentor:  DeMond Grant, Psychology


Trait anxiety can be defined as excessive fear of anticipated events (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Anxiety disorders can include panic, worry, and negative mental images, which can be distressing and impairing. Those who experience anxiety have a decrease in attentional control and cognitive efficacy due these negative thoughts (Eysenck et al., 2007). Those who experience anxiety are likely to experience worry, which increases negative mental imagery. This decreases the available resources for cognitive performance. (Hirsch & Holmes 2007). Differences in type of mental imagery may provide insight into the underlying factors of this impairment. It is hypothesized that through this study, participants who visualize a negative image will have longer reaction times on the Go/No-Go task compared to those who visualize a neutral image. Methods: Participants were separated into two groups of high and low trait anxiety using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, a measure of state or trait anxiety (Spielberger, 1983). Participants were guided through a self-imagery manipulation where they were presented with three different prompts to provoke a positive, neutral and negative self-image. Next, participants completed a Go/No-go task during each of the manipulations (Righi et al., 2009). Expected Results: It is expected that those with high trait anxiety will have no difference in errors compared to low trait anxiety. However, when the participant holds a negative image in their mind, it is hypothesized that this will have increased reaction times compared to other types of imagery during the Go/No-go task. Discussion: This study aimed to determine if holding a negative image will cause longer reaction times on the Go/No-go task in comparison to a neutral image. To investigate this relationship, participants completed a Go/No-go task while holding a mental image in their mind (negative, positive, and neutral). Results are expected to show that participants in the high trait anxiety group that hold a negative image while completing a Go/No-Go task will have longer reaction times. When the self-image is positive in the high trait anxiety group, it is expected that their reaction times. These results would document effects of cognitive processing.


C-22       Reagan Cole

Research Collaborators:  Cassidy Armstrong, Blayne Barker, Alexandria L. Blair, Ashley B. Cole

Research Presentation Title:  Empowering Indigenous College Students to Stop Rape: A Formative Study

Faculty Research Mentor:  Ashley Cole, Psychology


Of the 1.44 million women enrolled in college each year in the US, approximately 1 in 5 will experience a rape in their first year (Muehlenhard et al., 2017). This number rises to at least 1 in 4 Indigenous college women (Black et al., 2011), who experience the highest risk of rape among all racial/ethnic groups in the US (UHI, 2018), and the number of Indigenous sexual-minoritized individuals who experience sexual violence is unknown. Indigenous women are also more likely to have experienced risk factors that can hinder the effectiveness of sexual assault prevention interventions, such as historical trauma, poverty, and existing mental health concerns (Ehlers et al., 2013). Rape increases the risk of nearly every psychological disorder (Dworkin et al., 2017). Experiencing a rape during college is associated with lower grades, dropping out, and decreased employment (Banyard et al., 2017; Martin et al., 2011). Yet only two existing empirically supported sexual assault prevention programs meet the Institute of Medicine and American Psychological Association standards. This study aims to: 1) Assess frequency and degree of mental health needs among Indigenous college students using a national, quantitative survey; and 2) Assess gaps and needs in currently available self-defense interventions by conducting qualitative interviews with Indigenous college students and providers of sexual assault prevention programs to identify areas for cultural adaptation. This poster will present preliminary mixed-methods findings from this study and discuss future directions. Preliminary survey findings revealed that students from numerous tribal affiliations participated. Most participants were women (78.6%), followed by men (18.8%) and trans/Two-spirit individuals (7.2%). The mean age was 24-years-old (SD=4.2). Nearly three-quarters of the sample reported childhood sexual abuse (73.7%) and sexual assault since age 14 (76.7%). This number is likely an underestimate, given that analysis and coding of data is ongoing. Regarding self-defense, 37.2% reported participating in self-defense training, and 25.6% reported participating in a bystander intervention. Data on preferences for existing programs and program characteristics will also be presented. Results of this study will inform the development of the first culturally adapted sexual assault prevention program for Indigenous college students.


C-23       Madison Dill

Research Collaborators: 

Research Presentation Title:  Parental Involvement in Known and Novel Word Learning and Comprehension

Faculty Research Mentor:  Sarah Kucker, Psychology


Research suggests that the degree to which parents are involved in their child’s life, including how much they read together and how much time is spent in play, positively correlates with children’s vocabulary, even after controlling for demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status. However, less work has looked at engagement’s impact on children’s confidence in word learning. This is the aim here. Phase one explored the relationship between general parental involvement and a child's accuracy and confidence in known and novel word learning. Children were given a referent selection task and asked to identify an item by name; their initial and final choices were recorded as a measure of initial confidence and final accuracy. There was a significant correlation between involvement and the child’s performance on known referent selection, r(87)=.294, p=.006 and vocabulary percentile, r(88)=.478, p<.001. This was primarily driven by reading interactions. These results suggest reading with a child has a significant effect on the child's ability to recognize known words but not in recognizing new words. However, other interactions (eating, drawing, doing puzzles together) do not have an effect on a child's ability to recall new or familiar words. Phase two is in progress and will focus on the relationship between the child’s vocabulary and the child's engagement when reading with their parents. Specifically, phase two will measure the quality and form of engagement while reading that may impact the child’s vocabulary. Taken together this research will support the importance of communication between parent and child and how critical it is for the solidification of the words they’ve learned.


C-24       Kaitlyn Dye

Research Collaborators:  Cassidy Armstrong, Marilysis Saldivar, Ashley B. Cole

Research Presentation Title:  Alcohol Use and Teen Pregnancy Prevention among American Indian/Alaska Native Youth: A Literature Review

Faculty Research Mentor:  Ashley Cole, Psychology


While the teen pregnancy rate in the United States has been generally decreasing over the past decade, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) peoples continue to have the highest teen pregnancy rate across all other races/ethnicities. Research from the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy found that 21% of AI/AN teens became mothers in 2009 compared to 16% of teens of all other races/ethnicities (Hanson et al., 2020). A significant risk factor for early sexual initiation and unprotected sex is the early initiation of substance use (Chambers et al., 2021). Many AI/AN adolescents lack adequate knowledge about contraceptives (Kenyon et al., 2019). When compared to non-Hispanic White (NHW) adolescents, AI/AN adolescents are more likely to consume alcohol and partake in binge drinking (Shrestha et al., 2019). Several historical and contemporary risk factors for early alcohol use initiation among AI/AN peoples that have been identified in the literature include historical trauma and greater discrimination (e.g., Cheadle, J.E., & Whitbeck, L.B., 2011). Separate existing interventions aim to target adolescent alcohol use and teen pregnancy among AI/AN youth separately, but there is an urgent need for culturally appropriate interventions and prevention efforts that simultaneously addresses both risky sexual behaviors and alcohol use among AI/AN youth. This poster aims to examine culturally appropriate interventions that target both alcohol use and teen pregnancy among AI/AN adolescents in efforts to reduce risky drinking and increase contraceptive usage. CHOICES (Changing High-Risk Alcohol Use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study) for AI/AN Teens is one of the few prevention efforts for this issue. CHOICES for AI/AN Teens (CHAT) is culturally modified for AI/AN adolescents, both males and females. The program is provided in an online, interactive format that includes education on risky sexual behaviors and substance use. Feedback from the participants (n=15) considered CHAT to be culturally acceptable and accessible, as its online format allows AI/ANs living in rural locations (e.g., reservations) to participate (Hanson et al., 2020). It’s vital to understand the impact of early alcohol use initiation and its relation to risky sexual behaviors among AI/AN adolescents to initiate more prevention efforts and provide adequate education to AI/AN adolescents.


C-25       Emily Fleming

Research Collaborators:  Danielle E. Deros, Kaitlyn M. Nagel, Burkhart J. Hahn, DeMond M. Grant

Research Presentation Title:  The Impact of Ordering Effects on Attention in Social Ostracism

Faculty Research Mentor:  DeMond Grant, Psychology


Social anxiety (SA) is defined through intense and enduring fears of evaluation when one is observed within social situations (APA, 2013). One type of situational outcome with which these fears may be associated is interpersonal exclusion. Accordingly, such negative outcomes may facilitate internal, behavioral, and cognitive impairments (e.g., Zadro et al., 2006), and adversely impact abilities to engage with social threats (Cacioppo & Hawkley, 2009). Conversely, social inclusion has been shown to minimize adverse impacts of evaluation and exclusion (Lipton et al., 2020). Thus, it is important to understand how temporal engagement in inclusion relative to exclusion may influence these impairments. The objective of the present project is to evaluate the impact of the ordering of social exclusion relative to inclusion on attentional performance. A sample of 35 individuals (80.0% female; M=22.46 years, SD=6.30; 80.0% Caucasian; 82.9% non-Hispanic) participated in online questionnaires and behavioral tasks as part of a larger study. Participants completed counterbalanced inclusion and exclusion versions of Cyberball (Williams & Jarvis, 2006), and each were followed by attentional dot probe tasks that provided indicators of response times toward target probes (Rodgers et al., 2020). Within this dot probe, participants were presented with a series of trials that represented either disengagement or engagement with emotional facial stimuli as well as either shifting attention to different locations on the screen or focusing on the same location. A repeated-measures 2 Order (Inclusion/Exclusion, Exclusion/Inclusion) by 2 Time (First, Second) by 4 Attention Bias (Disengagement-Shifting, Disengagement-Focusing, Engagement-Shifting, Engagement-Focusing) by SA ANOVA was conducted to detect differences in response time. Results revealed a significant interaction (F[1,32]=4.85, p<.05) between Order and Time such that for those who completed the order Inclusion/Exclusion, response times on average were slower to the dot probe after being included (M=0.68 seconds) relative to excluded (M=0.65). However, there were minimal differences observed for those who completed the order Exclusion/Inclusion. These results may suggest that being excluded first may have residual effects that may hinder downstream attentional performance after being included, and true effects of inclusion may only be able to be discerned if presented to participants first.


C-26       Alexa Hernandez

Research Collaborators:  Sarah Kucker

Research Presentation Title:  Technology’s Impact on Vocabulary Skills in Infants and Toddlers

Faculty Research Mentor:  Sarah Kucker, Psychology


Technology is becoming increasingly prominent in today’s society, and children are being exposed to screens at younger ages than in previous years. This exposure has led to teachers and parents questioning how technology use may be affecting children’s vocabulary skills. Previous research has primarily focused on technology’s effect on reading skills in school age children and thus leaves gaps in knowledge regarding technology’s effect on younger children (Yienger, 2016). In addition, other studies have shown that an increase in screen time is associated with a decrease in learning (Neophytou et al., 2019). However, these types of studies focus on learning as a whole, and do not provide data on vocabulary use exclusively. Thus, the current study examines the correlations between technology use and vocabulary development in infants and toddlers. It was hypothesized that an increase in technology use would be associated with lowered vocabulary skills in children. In this study, parents were asked to report how often their kids use tablets and handheld devices, and also reported their children’s vocabulary through the Mac-Arthur Bates Communicative Development Inventory checklist (Fenson et al., 1994). There was not a significant correlation between amount of technology use and vocabulary percentile, r(249)=.055, p=.388. There was, however, a correlation between technology use and age, r(265)=.230, p<.001. The results suggest that an increased amount of screen time does not lead to lower levels of vocabulary in children. Results also showed that as children age, they are utilizing more technology than younger children, yet their vocabulary skills do not appear to be affected by this increase. These results can have certain implications, such as parents and teachers having peace of mind knowing that some technology use will not affect their toddlers’ vocabulary, and that they can continue to use technology to further their kids’ learning.


C-27       Abby Hogan

Research Collaborators:  Delanie Robers

Research Presentation Title:  Comorbid Anxiety's Moderation of the Relationship Between ADHD and Peer Relations

Faculty Research Mentor:  Matt Alderson, Psychology


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with poor peer relations in affected children. Studies also indicate a link between anxiety, which has been found to be highly comorbid with ADHD, and poor peer problems. The current study will examine the relationship between ADHD and poor peer relations, in addition to the potential moderating effects of comorbid anxiety. Children will be categorized into one of two groups (ADHD vs. typically developing) based on broad-band and narrow-band rating scales completed by parents and teachers. A narrow band scale will be used to determine ratings of anxiety based on self-report. Anxiety will be differentiated between total, worry, physical, and social using the rating measures. These categories will help us determine the specific aspects of anxiety that play a role in the relationship between ADHD and poor peer relations. Peer relations will be determined by examining parent and teacher reports. The results of this study will lead to knowledge that allows further research on mitigating peer difficulties in children with ADHD.


C-28       Lauren Holste

Research Collaborators:  Jiwon Min, Katherine E. Hein, Hilary L. DeShong, Stephanie N. Mullins-Sweatt

Research Presentation Title:  Gender Differences in Psychopathy and Machiavellianism Traits

Faculty Research Mentor:  Stephanie Mullins-Sweatt, Psychology


Purpose/Background: Psychopathy and Machiavellianism are the two constructs that make up the Dark Triad alongside the construct of narcissism. The Dark Triad describes three personality traits significantly associated with difficulties in interpersonal relationships. While some argue that psychopathy and Machiavellianism are extremely similar (Miller et al., 2016), a number of researchers argue they are different enough to be separate constructs. Recent studies have found gender differences within psychopathy or Machiavellianism individually. Specifically, men expressed higher levels of both psychopathy traits (Miller et al., 2010) and Machiavellianism traits (Collison et al., 2020). However, no study has examined gender differences in both Machiavellianism and psychopathy. The goal of this study is to provide further evidence of gender differences shown in the expression of Machiavellianism and psychopathy traits within one sample. Methods: Participants (N = 191) for the current study were undergraduate college students from Oklahoma State University who worked over 20 hours a week, as this data comes from a larger study that assessed workplace behaviors. Participants were given research credits for participation. Participants completed a variety of self-report measures to assess psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism. These measures included demographic information (e.g., sex), The Dirty Dozen (DD; Jonason & Webster, 2010), Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA; Lynam et al., 2011), and Mach-IV Scale (Christie & Geis, 1970). The sample was 71.8% female and 74.8% Caucasian. Gender differences will be measured for Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. A series of T-tests will be used to determine whether there are significant gender differences in psychopathy and Machiavellianism traits. Results: It is hypothesized that males will express significantly higher levels of psychopathy traits and Machiavellianism traits. Implications: This study will provide further evidence whether there are significant gender differences in psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Knowing the prevalence of these traits in males and females will aid in diagnoses, treatments, interventions, and further research.


C-29       Brady Rice, Landon Edwards, Catherine Tanner and Jorja Ford

Research Collaborators:  Makena Kaylor-Tapscott, Maureen Sullivan

Research Presentation Title:  Parenting, Adverse Childhood Events, Resilience and Functioning in Emerging Adults Raised by a Caregiver Who Used Substances

Faculty Research Mentor:  Maureen Sullivan, Psychology


Children raised by parents that abused substances are exposed to higher levels of adverse childhood events, may have received less warmth and attention from parents, and may have experienced poorer parenting practices.  They are vulnerable to multiple negative outcomes in emerging adulthood including emotional distress and depression, poorer ability to manage negative emotions, and poorer adjustment to difficulties or resilience.  We examined associations between parenting, adverse childhood events, depression symptoms, emotion regulation and resilience in a sample of 196 college students raised by caregivers who abused substances.  We predicted that poorer parenting (lower warmth & affection, greater control) and greater exposure to adverse events would be linked to depression symptoms, emotion regulation, and resilience. Measures included:  Demographic & Information - (basic demographics, information regarding their caregivers’ substance use); Children’s Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI-30) (parental care or warmth and affection, and parental control-overprotection); Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) (adverse, negative experiences during childhood); Depression, Anxiety & Stress Questionnaire Short Form (DASS-21) (symptoms of depression, stress and anxiety); Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) (use of reappraisal and suppression to manage negative emotion); Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) (resilience and adaptation). Pearson bivariate correlations were calculated among ACEs, DASS-21 Depression score, CRPBI care and overprotection scores, ERQ reappraisal, ERQ suppression scores, and the CD-RISC total score.  As predicted, adverse childhood experiences scores were significantly correlated with parental care (r=-.446, p<.01), parental overprotection (r=.241, p<.01), parental acceptance (r=-.338, p<.01), and parental psychological control (r=.21, p<.01). Thus, parenting strategies tended to be less warm and accepting and more controlling or overprotective at higher levels of adverse experiences. Similarly, parental care was significantly associated with depression symptoms (parental overprotection (r=.23, p<.01), parental acceptance (r=-.29, p<.01), and parental psychological control (r=.33, p<.01)).  Depression symptoms were lower with greater parental acceptance and lower parental controls.  Depression symptoms were significantly associated with adverse events (r=.403, p<.01), and resilience was significantly correlated with depression (r=-.332, p<.01).  Implications of results will be discussed.


C-30       Mariah Veley

Research Collaborators:  Gina Erato

Research Presentation Title:  Adverse Childhood Experiences and Empathy in College Students

Faculty Research Mentor:  Lucia Ciciolla, Psychology


Decades of research have examined the deleterious effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) on mental and physical health, yet less research has examined the relationship between ACEs and positive psychology constructs (Grube & Liming, 2018). It is also noted that individuals who have experienced ACEs have an increased likelihood of poor mental health outcomes and stress (Crandall et al., 2019) as well as decreased likelihood of developing empathy (Narvey et al., 2021). The current study examines the differences in empathy across individuals with high and low levels of exposure to adversity in childhood. Methods: The sample included 730 college students recruited from a large university. The sample was predominantly female (72%) and white (75%). Participants completed online questionnaires through the Psychology Department Research Participant system (SONA). The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) is an10-item retrospective assessment of adversity, neglect, abuse, and household dysfunction (yes/no). Additionally, the Empathy Questionnaire is a 40-item measure that measures an individual’s level of empathy with a higher score reflecting higher empathy. Results: Independent sample t-tests were conducted to examine differences in empathy across college students with high and low exposure to ACEs. Participants were divided into low ACEs (0-2 ACEs) and high ACEs (3+ ACEs) categories with 73% of the sample having low ACEs exposure. Preliminary analyses suggest that there were statistically significant differences in empathy among individuals with high ACEs exposure (M = 43.20 SD = 9.07) compared with low ACEs exposure (M = 44.75 SD = 9.03), t(711) = 2.03, p < .05. Discussion: Results suggest that individuals with low exposure to ACEs have slightly more empathy compared to individuals with high exposure to ACEs. The literature suggests that adversity could act as a barrier to developing empathy (Narvey et al., 2021), yet empathy can be a protective factor against depression and negative mental health outcomes (Green et al., 2018). Thus, findings from the current study suggest assessing empathy levels in individuals exposed to adversity could be a helpful factor in identifying additional psychopathology risk or protective factors.


C-31       Sarah Ziehme and Madeline Hulsing

Research Collaborators:  Sarah C. Kucker

Research Presentation Title:  Impacts of gender stereotypes, storybooks, and socioeconomic status on children’s development

Faculty Research Mentor:  Sarah Kucker, Psychology


Children’s development is driven by multiple factors, including the parents’ gender stereotypes, their children’s toys and books, as well as socioeconomic status (SES). Previous research suggests that a parent's perception of gender roles impacts their communication and interactions with their child. Individuals with children who hold stronger gender stereotypes may provide more toys/books reflecting those stereotypes (e.g. more dolls for girls, more cars for boys). Thus, the parent-child interactions may revolve around those available toys and books which further instills gender stereotypes in the children, creating a cyclic effect. The current study investigates this idea through both a parent report survey and lab-based parent-child interactions. Further, the work here explores how these differences in toys/books correlates with vocabulary differences in children. An additional component investigates a theorized difference in how toys/books are acquired, based on SES, which may limit the types of toys and themes of the books. In preliminary data based on parent report, there was a marginal positive correlation between parent education and books that focused on the theme of taking a stand, r(28)=.295, p=.13, and a positive correlation between percentage of books that are bought new and prominence of hard work as a theme, r(28)=.337, p=.08. Stereotype assessments gathered from the parent report survey as well as the in-lab portion are in progress. Overall, the results show that book content/themes may be influenced by SES, which may have implications for children’s future education and socialization. Children’s development may be impacted by their parents’ gender stereotypes as these may impact parent-child communication and interactions, thus our study intends to further the understanding of the extent of the impact of gender role stereotypes. 

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