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Symposium Proceedings


Note: Presentations are grouped by the student’s area of research (based on the faculty mentor’s academic department), not the student’s academic major.


Poster Session D: 

1:00 - 2:00 pm

Agricultural Economics; Communication Sciences and Disorders; Community Health Sciences, Counseling and Counseling Psychology; Design, Housing and Merchandising; English; Finance; Hospitality and Tourism Management; Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation; Languages and Literatures; Media and Strategic Communications; Political Science; and Psychology (34 posters)




D-01       Seth Gunkel

Research Collaborators:  Keith Peiffer

Research Presentation Title:  Using Design to Research Messaging and Bureaucracy in Architecture

Faculty Research Mentor:  Keith Peiffer, Architecture


Public announcements and funding campaigns for new buildings on OSU’s campus provide concrete evidence of the use of rhetoric and persuasion to promote new buildings. When a client asks for an innovative new classroom design, an architect must prove they can design for their needs. Therefore, each element in an architectural visualization is carefully selected to convey desired messages. Marketing materials incorporating these visualizations are the direct product of this bureaucratic process for approving new designs. Through documenting and analyzing marketing material for new buildings on OSU’s campus in the last ten years, we can begin to understand the process buildings undergo before construction at OSU. Promotional videos, branding rollouts, and calls for donations show a carefully considered vision that OSU wants to project about its architecture. My analysis revealed this vision as I found direct links from phrases used in marketing to elements shown in architectural visualizations. Informed by my analysis, I created a form that codified the process of designing a building on OSU’s campus. The speculative paperwork makes explicit the clear aesthetic and approach that governs the design of new buildings on OSU’s campus. The form is designed to ensure buildings are designed to please the institution’s countless stakeholders. This study used design as a method for research. The act of emulating, analyzing, and designing allows one to understand the subject matter deeply – engaging with it in ways that would never come up naturally in traditional methods of research. The result is a nuanced and layered synthesis of the subject matter. A successful university must have clearly defined values. OSU codifies its institutional values and enacts processes to ensure they are upheld in the design of new buildings. Buildings on our campus, as well as buildings designed for any large client, are the result of these bureaucratic measures. Although the discipline of architecture typically emphasizes the unique role of the architect, this research clearly shows that systems exert significant influence on architecture. For architects to work effectively within these systems, a clear understanding of the systems at play is advantageous in the creation of a better built environment.


D-02       Natalie Haggard

Research Collaborators: 

Research Presentation Title:  Drawing as Research: Learning from the Pawhuska First National Bank

Faculty Research Mentor:  Jared Macken, Architecture


How can analyzing a culturally significant building through an architectural lens provide insight into not only its history but also the community that it exists within? The First National Bank Building has been a part of the streetscape of downtown Pawhuska since before Oklahoma’s statehood, making it the perfect contender for study of the impact of iconic small-town buildings. By studying Pawhuska’s First National Bank building through its front elevation, a typical method of architectural representation, I was able to analyze the Renaissance Revival façade and formulate a clear picture of this building’s “oil-boom” beginnings. This bank in particular, is representative of this period of Oklahoma history based on its grand façade made possible by the money in the area at its construction. Like the town of Pawhuska, the building has evolved to take on various roles over time, it currently serves as offices for the Osage Nation. By using the drawings to research this building, it develops new knowledge of how the architectural style of one building can serve as a catalyst for the surrounding context.


D-03       Hulen Howard,  Lilian Smith and Tollie Pugh

Research Collaborators:  Lilian Smith, Tollie Pugh

Research Presentation Title:  The Visual Rhetoric of Banking

Faculty Research Mentor:  Jared Macken, Architecture


This research investigated the architectural form and character associated with a typical American strip mall, Cimarron Plaza in Stillwater, Oklahoma. When visiting the site, our research team was drawn to a small nearly abandoned building that seemed out of place. Upon further investigation, we discovered this structure was originally a Stillwater National Bank ATM. We were intrigued by how odd a structure was for its purpose and found that in its original form it sought to replicate Classical orders of architecture. For example, the tiny structure had decorative “columns” around the doors which we found were meant to imitate those of Roman temples. Expanding to it’s architectural ‘relatives,’ notably banking structures, we began to develop an architectural syntax for banking. Older banks, like the First National Bank of Pennsylvania, project an image of power and security by using classical architectural forms. In comparison, the Chase Bank of Stillwater is inside of a renovated Subway Sandwich Shop. This is a 180-degree flip from the ideals that are being portrayed in banks of earlier centuries. Beginning with the initial case study, we created drawings that analyzed its form. After creating a catalog of other banking structures across the US, we created drawings and compared their use of form to determine the message they convey through architecture. Once we identified the key architectural elements of each bank, we were able to rework them to create new structures representing the entanglement of banking and industry. For example, we represented the connection of banking to private prisons with three towers composed of the ATM form of the Chase Bank of Stillwater. We then took another form from a bank tower and placed it over, as if it was watching over the prison. This is meant to represent the power structure that banking holds over our people. Another example is an apartment building that takes the form of a cigarette box, using columns to represent the cigarettes. This study is suggestive of the connection between banking and the tobacco industry, and the roll architecture played in supporting this power structure. Architecture has a powerful voice and can project curated messages to its patrons. Through our research, we discovered different strategies that the banking industry around the world, and in Oklahoma, utilized within the rhetoric of architectural form to project messages of power and stability.


D-04       Coleman Little

Research Collaborators:  Keith Peiffer

Research Presentation Title:  Tailgating Accoutrements

Faculty Research Mentor:  Keith Peiffer, Architecture


OSU’s campus has a double life: the interior, academic life and exterior, tailgating focused life. During the week its academic life is primarily supported by the interior spaces of buildings on campus. On football gamedays, this role reverses, leaving the exterior spaces around the buildings primed for tailgating. Unique material artifacts remain as a result of tailgating: generators, piles of trash, cornhole setups, cans of every beer imaginable. To interpret this specific condition, I applied the concepts from two contemporary art movements: Surrealism and Relational Aesthetics. Both movements are relevant for engaging familiar conditions. Surrealism is an art movement developed in the aftermath of World War I that used uncanny, dreamlike imagery to heighten awareness of banal occurrences. Relational Aesthetics, as described by art critic Nicolas Bourriaud, is the tendency of making art inspired by human relations and their often-banal social context. Artists engaging with Relational Aesthetics often stage mundane events, like eating a meal or putting together a puzzle, and present them in galleries. Treating an everyday event as the subject for an artistic intervention was especially helpful when considering gameday. To better understand tailgating, I conducted a field study, consisting of journaling and photographic documentation, during Homecoming on October 30th, 2021. An analysis of the photographic documentation revealed four repeating artifacts: trash, cornhole boards, ledges used as bars, and generators. In response to these four categories, I designed a series of specific interventions. This process used design as a research method to understand how we use space; my subtle, tactical interventions allow us to experience the familiar in a new way. Within the context of tailgating at OSU, the family of interventions speak to the inadequacy of existing infrastructure and systems on campus and the ways in which they are used on gamedays.


D-05       Holly Sandberg

Research Collaborators:  Khaled Mansy, Christina McCoy

Research Presentation Title:  Carbon Sequestering and Structural Abilities of Eucalyptus Cloeziana

Faculty Research Mentor:  Khaled Mansy and Christina McCoy, Architecture


Eucalyptus Cloeziana (kloh-zee-ah-nuh), commonly known as Gympie Messmate, is a fast-growing hardwood native to Australia. Its quick growth makes it advantageous for carbon sequestering while its strength class lends itself to structural applications. Market research shows that the demand for timber is growing, especially mass timber. An environmental product declaration, or EPD, for eucalyptus Cloeziana in the Australian market, has been evaluated and compared to the EPD’s of steel and Douglas fir of the same region. An EPD follows a product throughout its life cycle, stating values for global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential. This paper highlights market potential, as well as the environmental benefits and challenges to using Gympie Messmate as structural building material. In addition, a case study is performed to compare steel, Douglas fir, and eucalyptus in terms of embodied carbon and structural weight within a single structural bay. Comparisons among the three materials highlight both the differences in structural capabilities as well as environmental impact.


D-06       Forrest Vennerholm

Research Presentation Title:  Architecture as Communication

Faculty Research Mentor:  Jared Macken, Architecture


A lot of architecture has become inaccessible; not physically, but intellectually. A building can be used not only as a way to protect its inhabitants from the elements, but also to communicate with and enrich the community that surrounds it. Many architects have created architecture that is only understandable to other architects. If the inhabitants of architecture cannot understand what a building is trying to communicate, then what is that building good for aside from being an oversized umbrella? My research focuses on the ways architecture communicates with its inhabitants clearly. One specific avenue of communication I focused on was signage: a form of architectural communication that architects Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown also researched in relation to the signage of the Laz Vegas Strip. Some of their findings focus on how some buildings can have signage applied to them while others may use the shape of the building itself as a sign. I used their findings in my study of a building that exhibits characteristics of both types of signage: the Donnay Building in Oklahoma City. The Donnay Building is a building that is like a main street that has been packed onto one building; as such, it has many different kinds of businesses and people that call it home, and it communicates this eclecticism perfectly. The Donnay Building is beloved by the community it has fostered and has become an icon for that community. I took what I learned from the Donnay Building and applied it to a design of my own: a satellite design school for Oklahoma State. My design school communicates through its design that it is a place for anyone to come and learn about design and architecture.


D-07       Zane Wyatt

Research Collaborators:  Jared Macken

Research Presentation Title:  The Lost Structures of Boley, OK

Faculty Research Mentor:  Jared Macken, Architecture


This research investigates the lost architecture of Boley, Oklahoma’s main street. At the height of its prosperity, Boley was the largest Historically Black Town in Oklahoma and today is one of only thirteen that still exist in the state. By 1918, it was a bustling town with a large Masonic Temple, bank, high school, etc. However, Boley’s architecture quickly began to disappear after the Great Depression. This research used architectural theory and discourse from figures like Fumihiko Maki, Albert Pope, and others to understand the principles of the main street. The main research activity was drawing the lost architectural structures of the main street using resources such as photographs from that showed the once vibrant town.  Upon visiting the town in-person, contemporary photographs were taken to further piece together the amazing structures that were once vital to the community. These axonometric drawings of the lost structures uncovered the craftsmanship and elegance of these buildings and main street that is now in disrepair.


D-08       Rio Bonham

Research Collaborators:  Saleh Taghvaeian, Sumon Datta

Research Presentation Title:  Comparing Consumptive Water Use of Furrow and Drip Irrigated Cotton Fields

Faculty Research Mentor:  Saleh Taghvaeian, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering


The Lugert-Altus Irrigation District (LAID) is the largest irrigation scheme in Oklahoma and essential for providing water resources to producers within the LAID. Producers must be able to use the limited available water in the most effective way possible. As such, it is crucial that the most advantageous type of irrigation system be identified and implemented in agricultural operations. The two primary systems currently utilized in the LAID are furrow and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). Many studies have compared the water application efficiencies of these two systems. However, these studies were mostly small-scale (different plots within a single field), conducted in areas with different conditions than the LAID, and varied in results. To ensure the most effective management of the LAID as a whole, there is a need to understand differences in consumptive water use between furrow and SDI systems specific to the LAID. To accomplish this objective, 82 fields that have been under furrow or SDI since 2015 were identified by communicating with cotton producers in the LAID. The digitized fields were then overlaid with available remote-sensing satellite data of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) during the 2016-2020 growing seasons Statistical analysis showed little to no difference in ETa values between furrow and SDI fields in the LAID. Of the 17 days for which there was data, only one day had a difference in mean ETa that was statistically significant. On this date, the furrow irrigated fields had a higher mean ETa than the SDI fields. Furthermore, only two days had statistically significant differences between furrow and SDI irrigation in terms of in-field ETa variability. On one of these two days, furrow fields had more in-field ETa variability and SDI fields were more variable on the other day. The findings of this study show that furrow and SDI fields are similar regarding consumptive water use, which is a critical water flux as it is used up and becomes unavailable in the region.


D-09       Rio Bonham

Research Collaborators:  Mukesh Mehata, Saleh Taghvaeian, Sumon Datta

Research Presentation Title:  Effectiveness of Soil Moisture Sensors to Improve Irrigation Management

Faculty Research Mentor:  Saleh Taghvaeian, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering


Irrigating agricultural crops is the largest user of freshwater in Oklahoma, with an expected share of 36% of the total water demand by 2060. At the same time, our limited water resources are threatened by frequent droughts and increasing competition among users. It is now more important than ever for agricultural water resources to be conserved at every opportunity possible. One such opportunity is to manage irrigation more precisely using smart technology such as soil moisture sensors. However, smart technology has not been widely adopted. A recent survey reported that only 5% of irrigated land in Oklahoma was managed using soil moisture sensors. The goal of this research project was to investigate how to better implement soil moisture sensors into irrigated operations, particularly at sites with high salinity and clay content which can cause inaccurate readings in commonly used sensors. The project was conducted during the 2020 and 2021 growing seasons in the West-Central, Southwest, and Panhandle regions of Oklahoma. Commonly used commercial sensors were installed at several experimental fields in each region, varying widely by climate, crop, soil clay content, and salinity. The data provided by the sensors in each field was recorded and analyzed to determine their usefulness in making irrigation decisions. Additionally, soil samples from the fields were collected and analyzed in the lab for soil moisture, salinity, texture, and pH. Daily weather data were retrieved from Oklahoma Mesonet stations near each field. The results showed that the sensors were generally effective in near real-time monitoring of soil moisture at multiple root zone depths. However, their accuracy degraded rapidly as the clay content and salinity increased, as high as 30% error in these conditions. Almost all the sensors overestimated soil moisture, which could lead to underirrigation and possibly yield-loss. Among the two different calibrations provided by the sensor manufacturer, the texture-adapted combined calibration performed better than the default calibration. The main finding is that these sensors are effective when clay content and salinity are low, but site-specific calibration is required as these two parameters increase.


D-10       Addison Duling

Research Collaborators:  Addie Duling, Kiranmayi Mangalgiri

Research Presentation Title:  Environmental Fate and Treatment of Antibiotics in Animal Manure

Faculty Research Mentor:  Kiranmayi Mangalgiri, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering


Animals raised in concentrated animal feed operations are administered antibiotics to prevent disease, and these antibiotics then remain in their manure or litter. They then enter the environment through manure that is land applied, animal feed, or other recycled forms of animal waste that are reused. The antibiotics are contaminants of emerging concern because they can have harmful effects on water quality, consumers, and other organisms. Contaminated manure used in land application can lead to traces of the antibiotics being transferred to water sources through leaching and runoff and can then be taken up by plants. Studies have found that antibiotics in environmental systems are often transformed into more toxic and more mobile forms, which leads to more organisms and consumers being exposed to the contaminants. However, the specific movements of antibiotic contaminants through the environment is not actually known. This presents a need for understanding how these antibiotics not only affect the environment, but how they can be treated without harming important background material. The overall goal of this project is to develop analytical methods to detect these contaminants even in very small, trace amounts in the environment. In addition, the physicochemical and biological properties of the contaminants and how they enter the environment must also be understood. I will study the physical properties, most specifically UV absorbance properties, of these antibiotic compounds. The antibiotics will be studied by preparing buffered antibiotic solutions containing experimental samples and using a UV spectrophotometer to observe wavelength to measure absorption properties. The UV spectra will be noted at varying pH values of 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, and 12 for the antibiotics, and molarity, normality, and mass and volume concentrations will be calculated. From there, Beer’s Law, which relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which it is traveling, will be used to find the molar absorption coefficient of the contaminants. The molar absorption coefficient will provide insight about how strongly the substances absorb light at different wavelengths, and specifically the maximum wavelength can be found. It is expected that after studying the physicochemical properties of the antibiotic solutions, it will allow us to better predict and treat these contaminants in environmental systems.


D-11       Kelly Lewis and Samuel Li

Research Presentation Title:  Automated X-Ray Imaging of Peanut Smut Disease

Faculty Research Mentor:  Ning Wang, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering


Peanut smut, caused by the fungus Thecaphora Frezzii, replaces peanut kernels with fungal spores. It is found in South America, such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil. Peanut breeders and scientists are developing new varieties with smut-resistance. In Argentina, hand-opening pods for rating disease is bottlenecking the breeding of peanut smut resistance. Healthy pods are denser than infected pods with Thecaphora Frezzii teliospores, so x-ray screening can be used to identify infected kernels. The objective of this work is to build an automated x-ray imaging system to be shipped to Argentina and will be used in the sorting processes. The X-ray imaging system consists of an actuator controlling peanut sample movement, a line-scan camera, an X-ray light source and is housed in a lead-lined container with lead acrylic windows for viewing. A fan, a temperature sensor, and a LCD screen are used to monitor the working conditions of the X-ray tube. Peanuts were loaded in large batches with dividers to control for the number of peanuts per image. Limit switches are used to guard the doors on the container to avoid the x-ray leakage. The operation of the completed system will improve the sorting process for the peanuts with smut disease.


D-12       Jinghang Zhuo

Research Collaborators:  Rebecca Bennett, Austin Pickering

Research Presentation Title:  Investigation on Methods to Detect Freeze Damaged Peanuts

Faculty Research Mentor:  Wang Ning, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering


Low temperature in the fall after harvest can potentially affect the quality of peanuts. It may cause structural changes in the cell membranes of peanuts which lead to an accumulation of toxic substances and components responsible for off flavors.          The objectives of this research are 1) to evaluate feasibility on using an off-the-shelf sensor to detect volatile from freeze-damaged peanuts; 2) to establish a low-cost sensing system to detect volatile released from the frozen fresh peanuts with shell. Fresh peanut samples were collected from the USDA-ARS-WPOFCU research lab in Stillwater, OK. A detailed experiment design was developed for sample preparation, volatile measurement, and data processing and analysis. Five sample holders with sensing devices were made and used to collect data from the peanuts through frozen process. A microcontroller, Arduino Uno, were programmed and a Python program were used to collect and store the data. The data were then analyzed using MS Excel. The results showed that volatiles were observed after the peanuts were frozen, and the low-cost sensor was able to quantify the changes of the volatile. However, more experiment are needed to evaluate the performance of the sensing system. 


D-13       Tyler Martinez and Carly Gotcher

Research Presentation Title:  Non-contact respiration monitoring

Faculty Research Mentor:  John O'Hara and Sabit Ekin, Electrical and Computer Engineering


There are numerous medical treatment benefits derived from being able to accurately measure a person’s respiration patterns. The standard method for obtaining a person’s breathing pattern is through contact-based sensors, however this comes with several challenges. The primary one is awareness; a person’s respiration changes when they are conscious of the ongoing measurement. Another is availability; contact-based respiration sensing is typically only available in a medical facility or through the use of expensive, custom take-home tests. Thus, new research has sought methodologies to measure human vitals via non-contact methods, such as cameras, and radio-frequency (RF) or WiFi signals. These methods raise important concerns such as privacy, cost, distance limitations, electromagnetic interference and bodily safety. We present a new and effective non-contact respiration monitoring method that addresses all of these concerns. Our method is a light wave sensing technology. We use invisible infrared (IR) light to illuminate the breathing subject (in this case a robot torso) and measure the reflected/scattered light using a photodetector. Changes in the torso position and movement are captured by the varying light intensity seen at the photodetector. We use a breathing robot to ensure accuracy and consistency in our testing data. A Raspberry-pi collects the data in real-time, and subsequent frequency-domain analysis code is used to filter the signal and access the breathing rate and pattern from the phantom. Our filtering and measurement technique is able to retrieve our signal from the ambient light noise of the surrounding environment, making the method effective in normal working/living environments. Our method has successfully recovered the correct respiration rate and/or patterns regardless of ambient conditions, depth of breathing, and distance from the subject (as far as 11 meters). These results suggest that light wave sensing could easily and successfully be implemented in a variety of heath-based applications both in the home and in the hospital.


D-14       Christian Moser

Research Collaborators:  John Hu, Nipun Kaushik, Aaron Rosen

Research Presentation Title:  Power Analysis Side-Channel Attacks

Faculty Research Mentor:  John Hu, Electrical and Computer Engineering


A side-channel attack (SCA) is a type of exploitation against secure hardware devices. The threat attempts to extract encrypted keys and data from a device through side-channel entry points that leak sensitive information. These entry points are predominantly in the form of electromagnetic emission, power analysis, and clock timing variances.  Of interest, correlation power analysis (CPA) and differential power analysis (DPA) side-channel attacks are particularly important due to their prominence in hardware attacks [1]. This is due to the ability of sensitive cryptographic devices being physically vulnerable to an attacker via accessing traces on the PCB of an electronic device, inserting a resistor, and thus measuring the power consumption with an oscilloscope during encryption operations of the targeted device [2]. The attacker can penetrate highly secure algorithms such as AES and RSA based encryption models by using this attack vector since it bypasses the algorithm entirely [3]. This attack vector creates a pressing issue in cybersecurity due to the bypass of secure algorithms. Thus, energy-efficient hardware countermeasures need to be developed to secure cryptographic devices. Alongside countermeasures, a platform for evaluating the hardware protection efficacy must be developed, as there is no current modular design available without a significant alteration of current devices used in these evaluations. I propose the development of an easy-to-use and modular platform for testing the hardware side-channel security of cryptographic devices. 


D-15       Chester Stubbs, Jame Ming Tan and Agustin Garcia

Research Presentation Title:  Batteryless Agricultural Sensors to Monitor Soil Conditions

Faculty Research Mentor:  John Hu, Electrical and Computer Engineering


The application and development of batteryless systems allow for consistent data collection and other long term electronic solutions without battery main- tenance. Sensor arrays using this platform allow for larger crop yields and enhanced water conservation solutions when applied to smart farming technolo- gies. To accomplish our goal, we use a TEG (Thermal-Electric Generator) to convert a difference of temperature to usable electric energy. The accompanying electrical system uses this energy to collect and transmit temperature, humid- ity, and moisture levels to receiving stations using BLE (Bluetooth Low Power) technology. Thermal and electrical systems are packaged into one low-cost de- vice, with the ability to place multiple devices in various locations for optimal data collection.


D-16       Ryan Vaughan, Anfal Hussain and Aaron Sosa

Research Presentation Title:  Energy-Harvesting to Enable Batteryless Smart Farming

Faculty Research Mentor:  John Hu, Electrical and Computer Engineering


Technology is becoming more prevalent in farming and becoming important to increase efficiency. Commonly, a grid of battery powered sensors is deployed to achieve distributed data collection. A drawback of this approach is the limited battery life of the grid network, which prompts costly replacement efforts. Additionally, batteries can be bulky and have a high environmental cost. With this research, we attempt to achieve battery-less energy smart farming in which our sensor nodes gather power from the thermal potential in the soil. Throughout the day, there is a varying temperature potential between the underground soil and the air. This thermal potential can power a thermoelectric generator (TEG) which we will use to power our electronics. Given the very low usable power from the TEG, we have tight constraints not only on our power management electronics, but also on the power consumption of our radio, microcontroller, and sensors. This project includes research into power generation with soil temperature gradient, system power breakdown in various application scenarios, communication data rates, and duty cycles that can be achieved with the thermoelectrically generated power. With this research, we hope to characterize the unique hardware requirements that are created by a self-powered battery-less smart farming sensor system.


D-17       Grace Hendrix

Research Collaborators:  Jianxin Xie

Research Presentation Title:  Deep Learning-Based Automatic Detection of Atrial Fibrillation (tentative)

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bing Yao, Industrial Engineering and Management


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which is clinically identified with irregular and generally rapid heart beat rhythm. Atrial fibrillation puts a patient at risk of forming blood clots, which can eventually lead to heart failure, stroke, or even sudden death. As such, it is of crucial importance to make early diagnosis and orchestrate treatment plan accordingly. In clinical practice, electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most prevailing diagnostic tool to investigate the abnormal heart conditions and detect the arrhythmia. It reflects the cardiac activities by monitoring electrical signals on body surface initiated from the depolarization and the repolarization of the heart chambers. However, AF detection is a challenging problem since it is often clinically asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is obscure from ECG reading. Furthermore, the clinical ECG data is usually subject to inevitable noise contamination which resulted from baseline drift caused by breath, electromyographical inference, and electrode inference, etc. Many machine learning methods have been proposed to help the accurate AF diagnosis, such as support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes, random forest, and discriminant analysis, etc. Nevertheless, these traditional approaches require feature extraction and pre-processing of the ECG data, as well as certain pre- designed detection rules or thresholds for assisting the AF classification, which are usually subjective and sometimes may be insufficient to capture the ECG information. As such, a reliable predictive modeling is desired to make accurate diagnosis with ECG data. Here, we propose a deep learning scheme using a convolutional neural network that can automatically learn high level features from the clinical data for AF detection.


D-18       Aarushi Singh

Research Collaborators:  Baski Balasundaram and Zhuqi Miao

Research Presentation Title:  Use of Atomic Cliques to Visualize Comorbid Disease Clusters in Temporal Networks: A Case Study

Faculty Research Mentor:  Baski Balasundaram and Zhuqi Miao, Industrial Engineering and Management


Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. These diseases are often transmitted through person-to-person contact and can vary from mild infections to life-threatening conditions. One such disease is the Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), a bacterial infection most common among elderly patients with weakened immune systems. Because these patients are often hospitalized, they have comorbid diseases, the simultaneous presence of two or more diseases. Using network analysis, researchers have been able to summarize interactions between diseases and their associated risk factors. The main objective of this study was to use atomic cliques to provide another tool for researchers to understand comorbidity risks associated with CDI. Atomic cliques are groups of data points that either occur altogether or not at all. A binary linear optimization model was formulated to find the largest atomic clique in a data set. This formulation was implemented using Python libraries and solved using the Gurobi Optimization Solver. To evaluate the suitability of the approach, the implementation was tested on a CDI dataset and other temporal networks. This framework offers another approach to researchers studying comorbid diseases and better understanding their occurrence over time.


D-19       Taylor Johnson

Research Collaborators:  John Weaver

Research Presentation Title:  Developing Knowledge of Constant Rate of Change

Faculty Research Mentor:  Michael Tallman, Mathematics


A mathematics teacher’s instruction is informed by their pedagogical knowledge (teaching theories and tactics) and content knowledge (ability to solve and understand math problems). A successful teacher must utilize both of these knowledge bases to support students’ conceptual learning of mathematics. Rate of change is one of the foundational topics within mathematics–it is essential to understanding function properties and representations and is the basis for calculus and differential equations. Ideally, one would apply covariational reasoning to develop a productive conception of constant, average, and instantaneous rate of change. Covariational reasoning, refers to the cognitive actions occurring when an individual relates the way two varying quantities change together. Previously conducted interviews by my research mentors were recorded and are now being analyzed to determine how the subject’s meanings for constant rate of change progressed and to discern how the subject’s learning was influenced by her covariational reasoning. During the interviews, the participant was given increasingly more difficult rate of change problems to solve and discuss. At times, she struggled to solve a new problem using the methods she had previously employed. However, she also had moments of growth in her reasoning and problem-solving approaches. We hope to distinguish and emphasize the differences between her approaches to solving constant rate of change problems. The goal of this journal submission is to effectively communicate the transition between a well-known tiered model of mental conceptualizations of rate of change previously reported in literature in order to aid students’ critical thinking skills and teachers’ ability to support students’ learning of this foundational concept. This journal article will also illustrate how teachers must recognize possible misconceptions that may be developed through the introduction of rate of change; they are not always obvious until later when more complex problems are introduced but a student defaults to what they are comfortable with. By being conscientious of the relationships within covariational reasoning, teachers can aid in students’ understanding in their class and the students’ future mathematics courses as well.


D-20       Omar Abouzahr

Research Collaborators:  Jamey Jacob, Ben Loh, Rakshit Allamraju

Research Presentation Title:  Assessing and Increasing the Frangibility of Various Unmanned Aerial Systems

Faculty Research Mentor:  Jamey Jacob, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) are becoming a greater part of everyday life. They have unlimited applications, including collecting weather data, providing surveillance, and transporting goods. As their usage increases, more rules and oversight by the FAA is required to ensure UAS operations remain safe. This is critical in regards to operating above people, as a collision with a person can cause serious and fatal damage. Frangible UASs would adequately address the issue of safety in direct collisions. Upon impact with an object at a certain force, the UAS would break apart easily to divert the full force of the collision. This would ensure that the object the UAS is colliding with, whether it is a person or a structure, would not obtain nearly as much damage if the UAS did not break apart. This safety characteristic would allow UASs to operate over people while minimizing any risks. A quantifiable analysis has been conducted to determine the frangibility of different UASs by launching them using a slingshot onto a mannequin at different velocities. The UAS flight path has primarily been analyzed using an OptiTrack Motion Capturing System that tracks the position of objects by triangulating the 3D position of fiducial markers placed on the aircraft between multiple calibrated images to provide overlapping projections, resulting in a position and time array for each marker. Subsequently, velocity and acceleration of different parts of the UAS can be found and analyzed. The UASs that have been tested are different Flite Test foam board models. The wings are the frangible objects of choice and have been modified by using magnets to connect different sections of the wings together. Magnets of different strengths have been used to provide an analytical comparison between strength of magnets and level of frangibility. The results of the analysis are promising, showing a breakup of the wing reducing the total force of impact on the object at collision.


D-21       Braxton Beavers

Research Collaborators:  Soumya Mandal, Ashish K. Gupta, Vidit Singh, and Jagdish Narayan

Research Presentation Title:  Atomic-Scale Insights on Large-Misfit Heterointerfaces in LSMO/MgO/c-Al2O3

Faculty Research Mentor:  Ritesh Sachan, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


This work is a detailed study on the atomic structures of heterogeneous interfaces in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) film grown epitaxially on c-Al2O3 (0001) with a buffer layer of MgO. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we detected nucleation of periodic misfit dislocations at the interfaces of the large misfit systems of LSMO/MgO and MgO/c-Al2O3 following the domain matching epitaxy paradigm. Using the atomic-resolution image data analysis approach to generate atomic bond length maps, we investigated the atomic displacement in the LSMO/MgO and MgO/c-Al2O3 systems. It was experimentally observed that the dislocations terminate with 4/5 lattice planes at the LSMO/MgO interface and with 12/13 lattice planes at the MgO/c-Al2O3 interface. Minimal presence of residual strain was shown at the respective interface due to strain relaxation following misfit dislocation formation. Based on electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis, we confirmed an interfacial interdiffusion within two monolayers at both LSMO/MgO and MgO/c-Al2O3 interfaces.


D-22       Caleb Bengs

Research Collaborators:  Craig Bradshaw, Kalen Gabel

Research Presentation Title:  Creating a Database for the Purpose of Storing Compressor performance Data

Faculty Research Mentor:  Craig Bradshaw, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


Compressors are vital components of everyday life. Although often overlooked by the general public, compressors are used in a wide range of heating and air-conditioning applications, and they account for approximately five percent of the energy consumption in the United States alone. As indicated by recent research on climate change, it is more important than ever to wisely manage energy use in all its forms. Therefore, it is imperative that greater focus be placed on the development and use of more energy-efficient compressors. Nevertheless, progress in this field is often hindered by the lack of a unified format with which to present compressor performance data. Different companies, organizations, and individuals present information about the compressors they have developed or studied in whichever format they prefer. As a result, it can be cumbersome to compare the performance characteristics of different compressors. In the worst case, it can even result in the selection or development of a less efficient compressor for a particular application. In an effort to resolve this problem, a database was created for the purpose of storing compressor performance data in a unified format. Data verification methods ensure that all data contained in the database is consistent, allowing users to easily compare performance data collected with different compressors. Furthermore, the database can even be used to train data-driven or machine learning compressor models. These models will expedite the selection and development of efficient compressors for general and specific applications. Finally, a user interface for data entry will allow new performance data to be entered as it becomes available, ensuring the continued usefulness of the database.


D-23       Cooper Degner

Research Collaborators:  Hao Chen

Research Presentation Title:  The Effects of Wind on Quadcopters in an Indoor Test Bed

Faculty Research Mentor:  He Bai, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


With the increasing popularity of drones in today’s world, it is important to consider the effects of weather. In my project, the effect of wind will be studied through the integration of ground robots and quadcopters by validating developed algorithms in an indoor experimental testbed consisting of quadcopters, mobile robots, and fans in a motion capture room. As for the process, the ground robots will be outfitted with wind sensors, which will collect wind data at different heights throughout the testbed. The mobile robots will then be integrated with a quadcopter platform in a motion capture room. Experiments will be conducted to collect wind field data from the mobile robots in addition to the quadcopter position and orientation data. Once data is collected, analysis will be conducted to reconstruct the wind field based on wind sensor data and correlate the wind data with the quadcopter data. So far, I have tweaked the existing ground robot platform provided by the graduate student and written code to control the motion of the robot and record its position. Integrating the wind sensors is the next step. Overall, with the increasing use of drones for commercial, military, and personal use, a working platform to estimate wind and its effect is increasingly valuable.


D-24       Kyler Dennis

Research Collaborators:  Andres Chapa, Christian Bach

Research Presentation Title:  Low Ambient Temp Heat Pump Defrosting

Faculty Research Mentor:  Christian Bach, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


A heat pump refrigeration unit is capable of heating or cooling down a building. The predominant challenge occurs when the temperature of the outside coil falls below the freezing point of water, the condensation on the coil freezes, affecting heat transfer and reduction of airflow. Thus, affecting the capacity and energy efficiency of the unit decreases. When the coil that is located outside of the building reaches a temperature low enough for the humidity in the air to condense on the coil's surface. Eventually, the unit is switched to defrost, removing heat from the indoors to melt the frost, an energy-intense process. Once a coil is frozen and the unit is switched into cooling mode, the system has to shut off and reheat the coils to get rid of the frost; lowering the heating coefficient of performance by having to switch to cooling mode. In contrast to the unit having frost, the unit is having to try and pull more air through a smaller surface area of coils, making the unit put in more work to pull out the same amount of heat transfer for the outside frozen coils. This research will develop an algorithm that optimizes the frequency of defrosting processes for maximum efficiency. The goal is to analyze operational data from sensors, determining if the coils are sufficiently frosted for starting a defrosting process, increasing the efficiency of the heat pump. The unit selected to be tested is a 4-ton rooftop heat pump, and testing is conducted in the psychometric chambers at both AAON and OSU. The testing at OSU will not only be used to determine behavior of the unit under repetitive frosting/defrosting processes, but also to determine if the unit's onboard instrumentation needs to be updated.


D-25       Max DeSantis

Research Presentation Title:  Video-Based Human-Machine Interface for Intuitive Mobile Robot Control Using Depth Camera

Faculty Research Mentor:  He Bai, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


As mobile robots grow increasingly commonplace, there is rising need to develop intuitive and reliable human-machine interfaces (HMIs) that facilitate cooperation and safety between operators and robots. An HMI, which can range from a keyboard-based command line to touchscreens and voice control, forms the definitive method of engaging with autonomous systems. These control schemes, depending upon implementation, can form a barrier to entry for less experienced operators. I propose the creation of a robot-agnostic control interface allowing for vision-based commanding of mobile robots. Spatial data would be generated using a depth camera, either stereo or laser-based, and existing simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithms would be used for spatial navigation. The end functionality should approach that of Google Streetview - a familiar and intuitive exploration tool - allowing users to simply "point and click" towards a navigable location for the robot to approach. This aims to further develop a form of "guided" autonomy, where high level decision making is done by humans and lower- level decisions such as speed, maneuvering and obstacle avoidance are handled by the robotic platform. This control scheme is easily adapted to any desktop or laptop computer, tablet, or smartphone. Furthermore, it requires far less operator training than traditional control schemes and is more accessible to those with motor disabilities. An example application is space exploration, where a partially-autonomous rover platform might sample its environment under the high-level positional guidance of a human operator. A dynamic simulator is used to accelerate development and aid in testing, while integration into a hardware platform will be performed later for validation. By developing more intuitive and accessible control interfaces, mobile robots can be utilized by a greater number of people in a larger variety of roles.


D-26       Noah Greeson

Research Collaborators:  Kurt Rouser, Josh Braun, Chaz Daggett

Research Presentation Title:  Preliminary Design and Evaluation of a Methane Turbojet Combustor Research Rig

Faculty Research Mentor:  Kurt Rouser, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

This paper presents the design and evaluation of a gaseous methane injection and combustion system retrofitted to an existing 300N-thrust turbojet engine. This project aims to create a simple, cost effective, gas turbine engine combustion test rig to facilitate evaluation of alternative fuels. Such evaluation requires a method of observing the combustion process with optical access for a camera. Analysis was completed to ensure the modified turbojet successful operation with near stoichiometric fuel-to-air ratio. Baseline engine operation was evaluated in stock configuration with conventional Jet-A fuel, observing exhaust gas temperature and shaft rotational speeds over a range of throttle settings. Testing was also completed with Jet-A after modifications were made to the engine to accommodate optical instrumentation. Though engine operation was verified when fueled with Jet-A, it was not successful with methane gas. The fuel feed system was modified and the start-up procedure was revised to facilitate methane combustion in the future. Recommendations are made for further development, including an ignition coil and automotive spark plug, and suggestions are made for future research with this combustor research rig for studying alternative fuels.


D-27       Tevin James

Research Collaborators:  Cole Kelly, Connor McCain, Jeremy Bertels , Scott Weekley, Kylar Moody, Lucas Utley, Garner Copher, Chris Totty, Tanner Booth, Luke Spaulding, Muwanika Jdiobe, David Kelley, Kurt Rouser

Research Presentation Title:  Design of a Geared Turbofan Module for Small Unmanned Aircraft Applications

Faculty Research Mentor:  Kurt Rouser, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


This poster will provide details regarding the analysis that has been done for the design of a gear module turbofan for a small, unmanned aircraft. The purpose of this research project is to provide results of the fan module such as: thrust, torque, shaft speed and air speed data. From a couple of previous works, the first work was a comparison between turbofans and turboprops about how a geared turbofan will have a lower TSFC (thrust specific fuel consumption) and higher specific thrust than a turboprop. The second work was designing and 3D printing a geared module turbofan and to be mounted onto a KingTech K45TP 5 kW turboshaft engine (inside a 3 ft x 3 ft test section of the wind tunnel), and now, the goal is to authenticate the theoretical performance by gathering data to prove that the theory for geared module turbofans are valid. For the fan module, it is tested over air speeds that range from 10 to 45 MPH (15 to 65 ft/s) and shaft speeds ranging from 1,000 to 7,000 RPM. The theoretical data will then be compared to the corrected effects of pressure, temperature, shaft speed and thrust but within the ranges of air speed taken in the wind tunnel.


D-28       Carson Manhalter

Research Collaborators:  Christopher Rathman, Zac Bycko, Michael Patman, Alexander Turner Camacho, Taylor Renee Kramer, Louis Giovannetti, Graham Tyra, Josh Anderson, Daniel Velasco, Mason Biliske, Andrew Martin Walsh, Jamey Jacob

Research Presentation Title:  The Effect of Port Geometry on the Performance of Hybrid Rocket Engines

Faculty Research Mentor:  Kurt Rouser, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


Hybrid rocket engines rely on a solid fuel and a liquid oxidizer. Though this concept is not new, it is not nearly as popular to research as its counterparts, solid and liquid rockets. Solid rockets can provide more thrust, while liquid rockets are more efficient and can be shut off or throttled by command. Hybrid rockets attempt to take the best of both types of rockets and combine them while mitigating the disadvantages of both. Determining what solid fuel to be used in a hybrid rocket engine is important, so would it be possible to 3D-print a grain from PLA (polylactide) that would be effective at producing thrust and therefore, a feasible type of fuel? PLA is a widely and readily available plastic filament material that is cost-effective and easily storable. If this is found to be effective, could it compete with a solid rocket engine in terms of thrust, or a liquid rocket engine in terms of efficiency. Using a rocket test stand, various data collectors, the software LabView, 3D-printers, and various other tools, the testing of PLA Hybrid Rockets proved to be effective, but not competitive with the other types in their best areas. However, 3D-printed grains offer the ability to be modified before they are printed, from changing ingredients to roughness, that traditional solid fuel cannot offer. This can help hybrid rockets improve in thrust and efficiency to compete better with other types of rockets. The variability of 3D-printed hybrid rocket engines will also be a huge advantage for future research and development due to the ability to modify for different types of uses or missions.


D-29       Christopher Rathman

Research Collaborators:  Kurt Rouser

Research Presentation Title:  An Experimental Comparison Between Additively Manufactured Thermoplastics and Thermoset HTPB as Hybrid Rocket Fuels

Faculty Research Mentor:  Kurt Rouser, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


This poster presents an investigation into the viability of additively manufactured thermoplastics as fuel for hybrid rocket propulsion systems. This research will be comparing polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic fuels to hydroxyl- terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) rubber-based fuels. Initially, manufacturing and testing equipment were upgraded and purchased. This included upgrading the solid rocket test stand, currently in use, with the additional supply and control capabilities of low-pressure gaseous oxygen and high-pressure nitrous oxide. A fused deposition modeling 3D printer and a thermoplastic filament extruder were then acquired and assembled. Both PLA and ABS were manufactured and put onto spools. These thermoplastics were then 3D printed into the shape of standard 38mm amateur rocketry fuel grains. The HTPB grains were mixed and cast into the same size. The grains were assembled into motor casings and were tested on our rocket test stand. This test stand is controlled by an in-house LabView program that records thrust data from a load cell and chamber pressure data from a pressure transducer. The motivation behind this research is to employ advanced manufacturing to improve hybrid rocket performance, safety, cost, and reusability throughout the entire life cycle of a small hybrid rocket system. Future research will investigate methods of introducing metal powders into the filament manufacturing process and how different concentrations of metal affect performance of thermoplastic fuels compared to HTPB based fuels. Other parameters that future research will investigate are variations in grain port geometry, number of grain ports, and infill percentages. There is also great interest in advanced manufacturing of oxidizer injectors and igniter designs.


D-30       Seth Robbins

Research Collaborators:  Trey Schinzler

Research Presentation Title:  Design Considerations For a Variable-Cycle Jet Engine

Faculty Research Mentor:  Kurt Rouser, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


This poster presents the results of testing the effects of nozzle diameter, nozzle offset, propeller shape, and propeller size to determine the feasibility of a variable-cycle turboprop/turbojet powerplant for small unmanned applications. The motivation of this project is to inform design decisions for a single aircraft with both high-speed dash and high-efficiency long term loiter capabilities, creating a package that can perform both long range and long-term surveillance. These factors were evaluated through static testing of a modified 5-kW output KingTech K45TP engine with an array of nozzle diameters from 40mm to 24mm, offsets between 0.75 inches and 1.75 inches, 2 and 3-bladed 20-inch propellers produced by APC and Biela, as well as a 2-bladed 23-inch APC propeller used to lock the system into turbojet mode. Based on initial results, it appears that while the turboprop configuration generates excellent thrust across many nozzle diameters and offsets, the turboprop has difficulty generating usable thrust with the propeller’s turbine locked in the flow. Comparison of the propellers indicates that the 3-bladed Biela is a superior choice when thrust is valued. This directs future research towards methods of bypassing or moving this turbine based on system settings or removing the turbojet setting altogether and selecting a gearbox and propeller that can achieve higher speeds at full throttle in conjunction with a Rocket-Assisted Take-Off option. At this stage further testing to establish thrust-specific fuel consumption, which can be used to establish expectations for range and endurance, is recommended.


D-31       Paul Boren

Research Collaborators:  Rosty Martinez, Sofia Gomez

Research Presentation Title:  Calculating Electronic Stopping Power of Copper Gallium Selenide

Faculty Research Mentor:  Mario Borunda, Physics


Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) is a semiconductor material that can be used in an array of scientific and engineering applications, especially in the manufacturing of thin film solar cells. We have conducted research on a variation of CIGS, copper gallium selenide (CuGaSe2), with an interest in calculating the electronic stopping power of the material. Electronic stopping power refers to the energy transfer from a projectile ion moving throughout a material to the bound electrons within the material. Using time-dependent density functional theory we simulate a projectile proton traveling throughout CuGaSe2 at speeds ranging from 0.4 to 7 𝑎0 𝐸h /ħ. Using these simulations, we obtain results for the kinetic energy of the projectile proton and host material as it moves through the material. We use these results to calculate the electronic stopping power curve of CuGaSe2 as a function of the projectile’s speed to better understand how this material slows down an incoming proton and how it may be used in future development of solar cells.


D-32       Ryan Boyce and Conner Heffernan

Research Collaborators:  Garrett Thornton, Tristen Lee, Martin Yang

Research Presentation Title:  Compact Silicon PIN Photodiode Sensor for Secondary Cosmic Ray Detection

Faculty Research Mentor:  Eric Benton, Physics


Exposure to radiation caused by cosmic rays and solar events in space poses a threat to human health and travel in space. Current dosimeters for monitoring crew radiation dosage are often expensive and bulky. In this presentation, we propose a compact and economical design for a dosimeter suited for rocket flight. Drawing from established detector architectures, our design centers on a silicon PIN photodiode detector coupled to a charge sensitive preamplifier and pulse shaping amplifier. When a particle deposits energy into the active region of the photodiode, a current pulse is converted to a voltage pulse by the preamplifier, which is processed by the shaping amplifier to be read by an analog to digital converter. Measurements from this process will be used for obtaining dose rate as a function of time. To calibrate the dosimeter, known radioactive sources were used. A mounting system is subsequently developed for rocket flight. Resulting prototypes will be flown with the OSU rocketry club in the Spaceport America rocketry competition, and later with a NASA EPSCoR sponsored flight on Blue Origin’s New Shepard to evaluate detector functionality at altitude. The development of flight-ready radiation detectors made of readily available electronic components stands to make rocket-borne dosimetry more economical, providing another tool in the analysis of space and near-space radiation environments.


D-33       Garrett Thornton

Research Collaborators:  Tristen Lee, Martin Yang, Ryan Boyce, Conner Heffernan

Research Presentation Title:  Cost-Effective Semiconductor Detection System for Flight Altitude Dosimetry

Faculty Research Mentor:  Eric Benton, Physics


Crew and passenger exposure to atmospheric ionizing radiation at flight altitudes remains a concern for safe air travel. High-energy cosmic rays entering the atmosphere create showers of secondary particles through which commercial aircraft commonly fly. The fundamental goal of our research is the development of compact and cost-effective detectors for deployment aboard aircraft and the study of secondary cosmic ray particles at flight altitudes. Emphasis has been placed on developing economical replacements for existing detector amplification electronics by creating systems of comparable performance using conventionally-available electronic components. Of concern for this research is the charge-sensitive preamplifier, which collects low-magnitude current pulses induced by incident radiation in a semiconductor detector head and converts them into measurable voltage tail-pulses. Subsequent amplification, shaping, and digitization of signals enables determination of absorbed dose. The charge-sensitive preamplifier is the primary stage of signal amplification and is thus vital for the functionality of ionizing radiation detectors. Our methodology centers on the design and construction of printed circuit boards, along with spectral calibration using known radionuclides. Concurrent testing seeks to determine optimal photodiode-amplifier combinations. Prototypical models effective in the detection of alpha and beta particles are under development and calibration, and successive field testing and deployment is anticipated. The development of compact and economical charge-sensitive preamplifiers should enhance our capacity to study the impacts of atmospheric ionizing radiation at flight altitudes.


D-34       Shelby Maggard

Research Presentation Title:  Static Chamber Design Comparison for Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimates from Different Land Uses

Faculty Research Mentor:  Mary Foltz, Civil and Environmental Engineering


Managed soil can produce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide, which contribute to global climate change. To establish the effects of land use management and change on global GHG emissions, accurate GHG measurements are needed from different field management (e.g., pasture, row cropping). Chambers are an affordable option to capture and measure GHG emissions simultaneously from various land-use types. Although literature recommendations include various construction guidelines, they fail to elaborate on how different chamber designs may affect GHG emission estimates. In this study, we specifically consider the impact of chamber design (i.e., surface area) on GHG emission estimates from different land-use types. We consider three different diameters (8, 10, and 12 inch) for cylindrical polyvinyl chloride (PVC) static chambers and statistically compare GHG measurements from different designs and land-use types in central Oklahoma. We also consider relative chamber construction costs to balance practicality with gains in estimation precision. We also consider chambers size in ease-of-use considerations. We predict larger pipe diameters to provide better estimates as they sample larger surface areas and are less prone to pressure perturbations from sampling. However, a mid-sized chamber may provide equally precise results at a lower price, making them more efficient. Smaller chambers may be easier to build, transport, and deploy in the field. By providing quantitative data on chamber design emission comparisons across different land-use types, this study aims to support future work through improved GHG emission measurement methods.


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