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Symposium Proceedings

 

Note: Presentations are grouped by the student’s area of research (based on the faculty mentor’s academic department), not the student’s academic major.

 

Poster Session E: 

2:45 - 3:45 pm

Agricultural Economics; Agricultural Education, Communication and Leadership; Art, Graphic Design and Art History; Community Health Sciences, Counseling and Counseling Psychology; Design and Merchandising; English; Geography; History; Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation; Management Science and Information Systems; and Political Science (38 posters)

 

 

Presentations:

 

E-01     Katie Dillon and Jordyn Bertrem

Research Collaborators:  Amy Hagerman

Research Presentation Title:  Active Listening to Stakeholders Questions in Recorded Extension Webinars

Faculty Research Mentor:  Lixia Lambert, Agricultural Economics

 

Since the Covid-19 pandemic that overtook the world in early 2020, universities have utilized online platforms to conduct lectures, teaching seminars, and other events that normally were held in person. Oklahoma State University (OSU) Extension also adapted quickly to webinars and Zoom meetings when travels were restrained by safety concerns. Some live webinar series were so popular they continue today, including the Agriculture Economics Department YouTube channel, where weekly “Learn at Lunch” presentations are uploaded. These online media sources provide agricultural communicators and researchers the unique opportunity to analyze the communication styles of presenters and participants alike, specifically looking at questions that are being asked by our state’s stakeholders. The goal of this research is to improve our understanding of stakeholder needs and concerns by compiling and conducting an in-depth investigation on their recorded questions between 2020 and 2022. We combed through 35 hours of footage on 42 recorded extension seminars to identify questions raised, overall participant engagement, and communication styles. With the information we collected, we compiled and analyzed all questions and compared overall engagement with online webinars versus in-person presentations. Through our analysis, we discovered that the questions we gathered hold significant insights into the specific information our stakeholders are seeking, such as how to apply certain technical and market knowledge to production decisions, and which aspects of policy they require greater comprehension of. This poster presentation would provide an overview of those themes and will provide attendees with an opportunity to better understand how OSU is extending research to broader audiences.

 

E-02     Tess Haddock

Research Collaborators:  Andrew Van Leuven and Amy Hagerman

Research Presentation Title:  Quantifying Exposure to Extreme Weather Events Among Rural Communities and Agricultural Producers in Oklahoma

Faculty Research Mentor:  Andrew Van Leuven and Amy Hagerman, Agricultural Economics

 

Across Oklahoma, severe storms caused over $3B in estimated damages in 2020, drought damages exceeded $2 billion from 2010-2015, and flooding in 2019 caused over $1B in damages (NOAA, 2022). These immediate damages are compounded by long recovery periods for households and agricultural producers that can extend years beyond event occurrence, yet little is known as to why some communities recover more quickly than others. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects these events have on agricultural production and rural economies through utilization of crop insurance data. A normalized hazard frequency score will be generated to account for each county’s recent exposure to drought, flood, severe storms, and wildfire from 2000–19 in Oklahoma. A complimentary vulnerability index will be generated to reflect the observed relationships between hazards and damages. Both indices will be created using a variety of public data sources, and cluster analyses will be used to identify groupings of spatially and arithmetically adjacent counties sharing similar levels of ecological and socio-economic vulnerabilities. Results of the study will be used to target Extension programming and state emergency preparedness support. Future work will compare these indices with various measures of recovery to identify the nexus between hazard vulnerability and community economic resilience.

 

E-03     Jiadong Liu

Research Collaborators:  F. Bailey Norwood

Research Presentation Title:  The Impact of COVID-19 on a Food Pantry in Oklahoma

Faculty Research Mentor:  F. Bailey Norwood, Agricultural Economics

 

The COVID-19 pandemic in the spring of 2020 led to economic shutdowns, especially in the restaurant sector. This resulted in greater unemployment and financial stress for households, with food banks and pantries expecting a 50% rise in food assistance requests. Indeed, surveys of food banks find most—but not all—experienced an increase in demand. This study evaluates the impact of COVID during the shutdowns of 2020 at one specific food pantry in Oklahoma. Data were collected on the weekly number of people provided food assistance from 2017 to 2022 and used in an econometric model predicting the number of people served based on time trends and indicator variables for the shutdown. Results suggest the shutdown had no discernible impact on demand for food assistance. The reason could be attributable to no change in food insecurity in the area or a reluctance to visit the food pantry in fear of catching the virus.

 

E-04     Yifei Min

Research Collaborators:  Bailey Norwood

Research Presentation Title:  The importance of smartphones and internet access for low-income households

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bailey Norwood, Agricultural Economics

 

The importance of smartphones and internet access for low-income households

With approximately twelve percent of U.S. denizens experiencing food insecurity, food pantries can provide a respite from financial difficulties, providing households with days’ worth of free food each month. In recent years food pantries have evolved into food and resource centers, recognizing that lower-income households have difficulty acquiring a number of different goods and services in addition to food. For example, centers sometimes provide free haircuts. Succeeding in the world requires more than a full belly. A respectable appearance is sometimes necessary for obtaining jobs, and registering for services often requires internet access. As such, programs for lower-income households often provide subsidized internet access. This study measures the importance of smartphones and internet access to low-income households by studying responses to a survey of over 1,000 U.S. households. The survey contains a number of questions asking respondents to rank the importance of various goods and services, and to answer scale questions regarding their willingness to give up certain amenities (e.g., internet access) to avoid visiting a food pantry. The data allow researchers to measure the extent to which being “connected” is a need relative to other amenities like food access, transportation, and health insurance.

 

E-05     John Clemmons

Research Presentation Title:  Perceptions of Science Communication by Professional Communicators

Faculty Research Mentor:  Quisto Settle, Agricultural Education, Communications and Leadership

 

Scientific progress by itself is not enough to move society forward. As an example, measles was basically eradicated in the United States only to make a comeback because of declining vaccination rates (Patel et al., 2019).  As the number of news outlets and journalists continues in a decades-long decline, there is a need for science communication from reputable sources (Brownell et al., 2013; Simis et al., 2016). Science communication needs to improve, and one of the areas to be addressed is the lack of training and resources available to new researchers (Bankston & McDowell, 2018). Three two-hour science communication training sessions were conducted targeting student researchers at Oklahoma State University in the Ferguson College of Agriculture. Communication professionals were brought in as a part of the training so students could receive feedback from those actively engaging in science communication in their day-to-day work. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with communication professionals who participated in the sessions to get their perspectives on science communication and the training methods. There were four key themes from the interviews: defining science communication, importance of science communication, serving the science community, and potential of science communication trainings. The participants stated the need for science communication, which is well documented in the literature (Brownell et al., 2013; Simis et al., 2016; Voytek, 2017). Underpinning that belief is the assumption that the public lacks scientific literature, which is also a well-documented occurrence (Besley & Tanner, 2011). The participants were making statements and recommendations based on the needs of the audience: simplifying information so it can be understood and delivering that information through a variety of channels (Baram-Tsabari & Lewenstein, 2017; Bray et al., 2012; Dudo & Besley, 2016; West & Turner, 2018). While science communication needs to improve (Bankston & McDowell, 2018; Besley & Tanner, 2011), a notable finding of this research is why communication professionals would engage in training they do not immediately benefit from. These participants were engaging in the training in service to the student researchers, but also with the expectation that improving science communication will provide tangible benefits on society and research institutions.

 

E-06     Emily Griffith

Research Collaborators:  Lauren Cline

Research Presentation Title:  How Do Ferguson College of Agriculture Faculty Teaching Leadership in their Courses?

Faculty Research Mentor:  Lauren Cline, Agricultural Education, Communications and Leadership

 

Reports by the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) and studies conducted with Food, Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Human Science (FANH) faculty have identified employability skills important for agricultural and natural resources graduates. Many skills mentioned are also identified as leadership skills, such as identifying and solving problems, decision making, communication, conflict resolution, and navigating change. This study identified the needs of FANH faculty for integrating employability and/or leadership skill development in undergraduate courses serving FANH students. Participants were Oklahoma State University (OSU) Ferguson College of Agriculture (FCA) faculty members representing each department. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 FANH faculty to understand their perceptions and needs related to teaching leadership skills in their curricula. Qualitative data were coded using in-vivo and pattern coding to establish themes. The five themes that emerged were: (a) we need help teaching communication skills; (b) we think a college-wide course should teach it; (c) we know students need it, but we can’t teach it; (d) we aren’t all willing to do this; and (e) we don’t know how to assess it. FANH faculty recognized the need to develop leadership skills of students, but differed significantly on whose responsibility it was to ensure this occurred during a student’s academic career and how to assess it. Recommendations are for FCA to explore a college-wide required course for students focused on leadership skill development. Professional development for FANH faculty in assessing leadership-related learning objectives is also recommended.

 

E-07     Elise Braggs

Research Collaborators:  Jennifer Borland and Nancy Thompson

Research Presentation Title:  Open-Access Publishing in Medieval Art History

Faculty Research Mentor:  Jennifer Borland, Art, Graphic Design and Art History

 

Many online journals require readers to pay for access to the information they supply; in order to combat this, my research mentor Jennifer Borland, Nancy Thompson, our fellow collaborators, and I actively work on the Open-Access Publishing of Medieval Art History project. This endeavor produces a scholarly level online journal invested in finding dynamic and interactive new media that educates readers wanting to grow their perspectives on medieval art history in an easily accessible, ethical, and free format. This journal, Different Visions, provides inclusive publishing, via proposed essays, that welcomes a variety of approaches and topics reflecting the diversity of medieval visual and material culture. After undergoing a collaborative and rigorous editing process, essays are sent to me so that I can build a webpage, insert images, and showcase the information. With no previous experience working on the back side of a website, this process required me to perform extensive research regarding the framework of digital publishing and the software integral to this process. I use a program called WordPress which enabled me to learn through surveying and observing my colleagues, engaging in personal research about the system, and most importantly experimenting hands on in the program. My role in the team also gives me insight into the entire publishing process, specifically allowing me to learn the steps that are taken when producing scholarly writing online. These include submitting proposals, content editing, designing digital setup, proofreading, and finally publishing. While being an observer for the beginning of the steps, once the essays are passed along to me, I work together to communicate with both my mentors and the authors as to how they would like the webpage to look and function. This process involves the digital setup and proofreading aspects of publishing. Finally, the most beneficial facet of my involvement in this program is the constant exposure to groundbreaking research and writing in the field of medieval art history. Collaborating with this team gives me the space to develop my professional skillset specifically relating to art history research, the publishing processes, and the pursuit of forums for advocating this project.

 

E-08     Paige Henderson

Research Presentation Title:  Student Attendance and Engagement at the Oklahoma State University Museum of Art

Faculty Research Mentor:  Casey Ihde, Art, Graphic Design and Art History

 

Exposure to art and cultural objects enhances students' creativity, empathy, and visual literacy. The opportunity to engage with cultural objects and works of art helps students to develop their critical thinking skills. Because of this, it is incredibly important for students at the college age to engage with art and visit their local museums. The Oklahoma State University Museum of Art was determining why the attendance rates and engagement for students from the university showed little growth over the years compared to other demographics. For example, the attendance record from the previous year stated that 20% of the visitor in the museum were Oklahoma State University students, coming close to their overall average 19.09% of student visitors, which spans the entire time that the museum has been open. This is a stagnant statistic, and the museum would like this audience to grow. To better the museum’s understanding of student engagement and attendance, the study utilizes a survey instrument to collect quantitative data on student museum attendance patterns and factors affecting engagement. Surveys were distributed to gage what challenges students face when it comes to museum engagement. Students were surveyed using questions such as “Did you face any barriers before your visit to the museum” and “How do you feel we could better reach OSU Students?” In an effort to increase student engagement, events such as tabling at the Student Union, creating engaging social media campaigns and posts, and partnering with different student organizations promoting the museum are being put into effect. The results were analyzed through looking into the attendance and social media analytics to discover trends pointing towards an increase in numbers of student aged patrons. The findings of this ongoing project continue to give direction and shed light as to understanding how to reach the OSU Museum of Art’s student aged audience and implementing marketing strategy and plans that will be carried forth.

 

E-09     Ruth Sanchez

Research Presentation Title:  Una sensación de movimiento: Interaction with Spanish Didactics in Museums and Exhibitions

Faculty Research Mentor:  Christina Elliott, Art, Graphic Design and Art History

 

The rise of bilingualism continuously expands as the Hispanic population grows to be the largest ethnic group in the U.S. with a rising population of 62.6 million. Here in Oklahoma, 11.7% of the population identifies as Hispanic or Latinx. The establishment of Spanish writing and translations have become standard in public places that aim to serve these communities. More commonly seen in the business, law, and health sectors, Spanish text and translators serve as the bridge to the language barrier. While these accommodations are less standard in museums, cultural sectors have become more accessible through the development of bilingual interpretive materials and educational resources. This expansion then brings into question the frequency of these resources and how often these communities are able to engage with them.

This presentation reviews the incorporation of Spanish text in art museum didactics, specifically discussing an exhibition developed for the Orange Wall exhibition space of Oklahoma State University's Student Union. The exhibition features Native American art from OSU Museum of Art's Charles Little Collection. The didactic panels for this exhibition are produced in English and Spanish. A review of this case study includes feedback from attendees, students, and advisors who were a part of the exhibition in order to gauge the response and interaction with the bilingual labels. This case study aims to review the incorporation of Spanish didactic in museums, more specifically the engagement with translations and the community demographics that play a role in the development of bilingual labels.

 

E-10     Hannah Fiscus

Research Collaborators:  Ho Han and Hyun-Joo Kang

Research Presentation Title:  Analyses of Gait Parameters and Fall Risk in Korean Older Adults

Faculty Research Mentor:  Ho Han, Community Health Sciences, Counseling and Counseling Psychology

 

More than one in four older adults fall each year. As the first fall doubles one’s chances of falling again, fall prevention in older adults is a public health priority. Since it is well-established that most falls occur on flat surfaces during walking, identifying the changes in gait parameters before one’s first fall may be a strong predictor of falling.  PURPOSE: To examine gait parameters in older adults associated with the risk of falls.METHODS: 200 older adults (72.8 ± 5.6 years; 74% women) participated in the study. Participants’ gait parameters were measured through a gait analysis system. The Fall Risk Assessment (FRA) system measured sensory, nervous, integrated balance abilities, and musculoskeletal systems to assess fall risks. Participants were classified into one of two groups: low- and high-risk of falls based on the FRA scores. Independent t-tests were used to compare the gait parameters between the two groups. One-way ANOVAs were performed to compare the differences in gait parameters by age (65-69, 70-74, 75-79, and ≥80 years). Lastly, Pearson correlation and logistic regression were used to examine variables in step length and fall risk. RESULTS: For both men and women, there were significant differences (p < .001) in all gait parameters between the two groups except for cadence in men. There were also significant changes in trends of gait parameters by age in both men and women except for cadence in men (Ptrend <.001). Lastly, significant positive correlations were observed between adjusted stride length (stride length/height) and the FRA scores (r=.524 and .323 for men and women, respectively). For both men and women, the participants in the fourth quartile (shorter) of adjusted stride length were more likely to increase one’s fall risk (OR = 9.10 and 7.88; 95% CI: 1.39, 59.62 and 2.50, 24.84 for men and women, respectively) compared to the first quartile (longer). CONCLUSION: The risk of falls was increased by changes in gait parameters such as shorter and slower gait cycles and higher proportions of the stance phase and double supporting phase. Gait changes could be a successful indicator for identifying high-risk of falls in older adults.

 

E-11     Marilysis Saldivar

Research Collaborators:  Erin Miller, Wilson Lazo-Salmeron, Amber Ferguson and Sue C. Jacobs

Research Presentation Title:  The relationship of everyday experiences and the mental health of racial and ethnic U.S. and International students

Faculty Research Mentor:  Sue Jacobs, Community Health Sciences, Counseling and Counseling Psychology

 

Previous research has suggested college students from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are more prone to experience higher levels of anxiety, depression, and stress compared to their non-Hispanic white peers (Lipson et al., 2018; Wei et al., 2010). Although the research suggests individuals from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are more likely to have mental health issues, college students of color (international and domestic) are still underrepresented in research in regard to mental health. The purpose of this study is to look at everyday experiences, such as racial microaggressions and social connectedness, that may both be negatively and positively related to the mental health of racial and ethnic students at Oklahoma State University. In this study, undergraduate and graduate students will complete an online questionnaire with questions pulled from the College Student Microaggressions Measure (Blume et al., 2012) and The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale- 21 Items (DASS-21) (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Microaggressions are recognized as subtle, intentional, or unintentional statements of bias or insults toward racial or ethnic minorities (Sue et al., 2007). 

The questionnaire's purpose is to see a trend in the relationship between anxiety, depression, and stress, with involvement on campus, how a student perceives themselves, how others perceive them, and microaggressions over a one-month period.

 

E-12     Grace Goodrich and Carson Scott

Research Collaborators:  Semra Peksoz and Adriana Petrova

Research Presentation Title:  The Effect of Body-Scan Virtual Avatars on Consumer Experiences

Faculty Research Mentor:  June Park, Design and Merchandising

 

Our purpose of this research was to explore the perception of 3D body-scanned virtual avatars and the influence on customers’ experiences. To achieve this purpose, the study was done in two phases. Phase one was recruiting 14 participants and had them 3D scanned using the Human Solutions Body Scanner to create a digital form matching the subject’s body proportions. Using this scan, we created four versions of an avatar for each participant. Using Human Solutions software, two additional smoothed variations of the participant’s scan were created, a smooth (smoothed avatar) and an extra smooth version (statistical avatar). Next, the subject’s key measurements were extracted from their original scan, calculated using Anthroscan, then plugged into Browswear’s VSititcher software to generate the fourth avatar using the existing VStitcher parametric avatars (measurement avatar). A dress was simulated on each avatar to present them in an apparel retail context. All four avatars were rendered with and without the dress, resulting in 8 avatars for each subject. For phase two, subjects were brought for post interviews, answered questions about their age, clothing sizes, past experience with avatars in and out of the retail setting, and their feelings on the subject. During the interview, subjects were shown the eight avatars from phase one in random order. Subjects provided feedback on first impressions, preferences, and comparing the avatars and how the subject views their own body. Among 14 participants, 50% said they would use a ‘scanned avatar’ if they were to choose an avatar to use in a retail space and were drawn to the accuracy of the scan. 14.29% preferred their ‘smoothed avatar’, 14.29% preferred ‘statistical avatar’, 14.29% preferred ‘measurement avatar’, and 7.12% were indecisive. These results point towards people being more willing to use their most realistic avatar in the retail space than a less realistic one. Retailers and businesses can infer from this research that having a way to upload and utilize a customer’s original body scan could be a lucrative venture in the future.

 

E-13     Payton Losh

Research Collaborators:  Aditya Jayadas

Research Presentation Title:  Assessment of Emotions and Preferences for the Design of Healthcare Environments for Female Veterans

Faculty Research Mentor:  Aditya Jayadas, Design and Merchandising

 

Background: There are two million female veterans in the United States (U.S. Department of Labor, 2019). Veterans are often diagnosed with mental health challenges, with the most common being post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Female veterans are often not diagnosed for PTSD when compared to male veterans as they are less likely to report trauma experienced which can include sexual assault during their military service (Feczer & Bjorkland, 2009). Evidence-based design has shown that environmental attributes such as natural lighting, color, texture, patterns etc. within a space can play an important role in a) the willingness of female veterans to talk about their traumatic experiences, and b) the treatment of PTSD in female veterans. Though studies have explored health benefits of different environmental attributes of a space, none of the studies have reported specific needs and preferences of female veterans who have PTSD along with emotions they experience when they spend time in healthcare environments. Purpose: The primary goal of this pilot study was to determine if the emotions experienced (stressed, satisfied, calm, nervous etc.) by female veterans in healthcare environments was different from male veterans. The secondary goal of the study was to determine if there are differences in preferences of environmental attributes such as natural light, color, pattern, texture etc. between male and female veterans. Methodology: Four male (age: 46.3 ± 24.4yrs) and 10 female (57.0 ± 4.24yrs) veterans participated in the study. The participants were given a survey with Likert scale questions on emotions experienced when in a healthcare environment and preferences of different environmental attributes. A Mann-Whitney test was used for the analysis. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between male and female veterans in terms of emotions experienced in healthcare environments though female veterans expressed a higher level of dissatisfaction. As for preferences of environmental attributes, texture showed the highest difference in preferences between male and female veterans (p=0.058). Implications: This study has important implications for the design of healthcare environments for female veterans.

 

E-14     Allison Nguyen and Donald Orf

Research Collaborators:  Aditya Jayadas

Research Presentation Title:  De-Gendering Space: Developing gender empathy through gamified spatial experiences

Faculty Research Mentor:  Tilanka Chandrasekera, Design and Merchandising

 

Empathy is defined as the ability to understand how others feel and what they mean, and to convey these emotions to others (Richendoller, & Weaver III, 1994). Gender identity is defined as a person’s deeply felt, inherent sense of being a girl, woman, or female; a boy, a man, or male; a blend of male or female; or an alternative gender (American Psychological Association, 2015). Research and society still include transgender and anything beyond male and female as part of the binary, even though society is often selective of gender identities. This can be defined as cisnormativity: the perception that all people are inherently cisgender. Due to this, there is a lack of empathy in people when they enter a traditionally gender defined space, where the space is projecting a social standard of a male and a female as opposed to entering a neutral space. Spatial empathy is a concept that has been developed to describe how a person feels about the ambience of an environment and how that space relates to their personal identity (Duarte, & Pinheiro, 2016). There is a critical need to develop empathy towards people who identify within the spectrum of gender. This study focuses on assisting individuals in developing empathy by gamifying spatial experiences in which the player actively makes choices in relation to gender and how they react in binary gender coded spaces and non-gender conforming spaces. A pre-post empathy survey was developed based on several existing instruments and was used in assessing the change in empathy in the two conditions. The Toronto Empathy questionnaire was used in measuring the cognitive load in the two conditions. The outcomes of this study will compare how people interact with spaces based on how society perceives their gender, within the binary or nonconforming scope of gender identities.

 

E-15     Alyssa Oates

Research Presentation Title:  Preferences of Interior Design Attributes in Educational Learning Environments

Faculty Research Mentor:  Aditya Jayadas, Design and Merchandising

 

Background: Learning environments such as classrooms are where students of all ages develop and learn to perform well in the world. Repeated exposure to learning environments during the formative years of students implies that the classroom can aid in the development of attitudes, skills, and ideas. It is essential that these learning environments provide the necessary resources and support for both students and educators to perform well. Though studies have explored the design of classrooms, there has been a lack of understanding of the perceptions that educational professionals hold regarding the design of their teaching environments. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess perceptions of education professionals in the design of learning environments. Methodology: Nineteen participants (age: 37.43 ± 11.16years; gender: 18 female, 1 male) were recruited using convenient and snowball sampling. Participants were asked to complete a survey that included demographic questions (age, gender, ethnicity, location, role and experience) along with questions regarding their opinions on design attributes (color, light, layout etc.) of classrooms using a Likert scale of 1-5, with 5 being “very important”. Descriptive statistics including the average and standard deviation for responses to each of the questions were calculated to determine which attributes were regarded as most important. Results: The participants were classified into five groups: administration, elementary school teacher, high school teacher, safety educator and teaching assistant. The overall results across all the groups showed that “Natural Light” was the most important attribute with an average value of 4.89 ± 0.32, followed by “Layout” and “Technology in the Classroom” with values of 4.83 ± 0.38 and 4.79 ± 0.54 respectively. However, the different groups chose different attributes as most important to them. Also, the preference for specific attributes changes based on how many years of experience the participants have had in the education profession. Implications: As shown by findings in this study, natural light in classrooms would be heavily favored by educators of various roles (teachers, administration, etc.). There is an opportunity for interior designers, architects, practitioners and researchers to learn what attributes are important when designing a classroom.

 

E-16     Heather Pidcock

Research Collaborators:  Shariful Islam Tushar

Research Presentation Title:  Adaptive clothing for a feeding tube

Faculty Research Mentor:  Semra Peksoz, Design and Merchandising

 

This research aimed to develop clothing or hospital garments designed for children with feeding tubes. A questionnaire for parents and caregivers focused on the clothing and the problems imposed, the types of textiles preferred, whether the garment style is one piece or two pieces, and the ability to have seams secured with different types of closures for ease of use. The most desirable design feature is incorporating a suitable feeding tube path. At the same time, the textile preference is overwhelmingly cotton. The current market for adaptive clothing for feeding tubes is limited, does not provide a path for feeding tubing, and requires tape to secure the tubing to the body. Our prototype offers the user an opening in the front for port access and the ability to insert the tube through the side seams. It has a pathway for tubing on the inside of the garment, removing the need for taping the tubing to the body. The detachable sleeves ease donning and doffing the garment. The need for continued research to produce an adaptive design that does not create stress on the feeding tube and ease of access to any ports can provide the wearer with a sense of independence.

 

E-17     Lauren Selman

Research Collaborators:  Crystal Emerson

Research Presentation Title:  Shoulder immobilizers: Friend or Foe?

Faculty Research Mentor:  Semra Peksoz, Design and Merchandising

 

A shoulder immobilizer is a brace that holds an injured arm firmly in place to promote its healing. Many patients do not comply with proper donning and care of these braces. This noncompliance can inhibit healing and be counterproductive to intended surgical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore patients’ noncompliance tendencies with these braces in order to propose improved design criteria. The researchers administered an online survey of 11 patients who have been required to wear one in the last five years and conducted personal interviews with three experts in the field of orthopedics to gain insight into this problem of noncompliance. Orthopedic experts repeatedly mentioned neck pain and donning/doffing difficulties as factors contributing to patient noncompliance. They recounted numerous times patients present to the clinic donning their brace incorrectly. The patients’ perspective on donning and doffing was contradictory to that of the experts, with over half of those patents surveyed believing their brace was easy to put on. Because of this, the researchers prioritized donning and doffing improvements in the brace design criteria. This was achieved by incorporating a color-coded strapping system to the brace. It was found that the need to adjust the brace’s fit throughout the day and skin irritation at the neck were the two most common sources of dissatisfaction for the patients surveyed. A new neck pad, designed to disperse the brace’s weight more evenly, was incorporated into the design to increase patient comfort. A total of seven design criteria were generated according to the results of the expert interviews and patient surveys. An orthopedic surgeon judged the new brace improvements based on these seven criteria and found the new brace design to satisfactorily address six of them. It is hoped that these design improvements will increase patients’ compliance with their braces, and thus promote greater and quicker healing of shoulder injuries.

 

E-18     Maghin Brewer

Research Collaborators:  Sara Loss

Research Presentation Title:  African American Speakers of Oklahoma English

Faculty Research Mentor:  Sara Loss, English

 

This study looks at if African American speakers accommodate to local dialect features in Oklahoma. Oklahoma is an interesting place to explore possible dialect accommodation because it is at a crossroads between Midland and Southern dialect areas and has features of each region (Southard 1993). If speakers accommodate, they may accommodate to forms from one or both regions. African American speakers also may not accommodate to local features. In other studies about accommodation of African American speakers, three different outcomes have been reported: speakers in the Lower Susquehanna Valley of Pennsylvania hardly accommodated to local features (Bloomquist 2009); speakers in Appalachia largely accommodated to local features (Childs & Mallison 2004); and older speakers in the Carolinas accommodated but younger ones did not (Wolfram 2003). Data collection involved audio recorded sociolinguistic interviews with nine African American participants from Oklahoma as well as nine previously collected sociolinguistic interviews with white participants that matched for hometown as well as gender and age when possible. Specifically, some of the dialectal items I investigate are: (i) whether speakers produce hem with the same vowel as in hit (Southern), (ii) self-reported use of vocabulary (e.g., seesaw (Southern) vs. teeter-totter (Midland)), and (iii) sentence-level constructions, such as combining might and could (Southern and African American), and whether speakers can say “anymore” when others would use “now-a-days” (Midwestern).There are few participants, which makes statistical analysis difficult; however, there is a numerical trend in the data. More African American participants report using or hearing dialectal items that are associated with both southern and African American varieties (e.g., eight African Americans and six white respondents report using or hearing the combination of might and could). However, if an item was associated with the Midwest or both African American varieties and Appalachian English, white participants self-reported slightly higher numbers (e.g., zero African Americans and three white respondents report using or hearing “anymore” to mean “now-a-days"). White Oklahomans may have a special connection to Appalachia that African American Oklahomans do not, since a number of people from Appalachia participated in various land runs (Southard 1993).

 

E-19     Victoria Warren, Katie Ditchkus, Katie Leigh, Jackson Dillingham and Jodi Tabert

Research Presentation Title:  Relations between Early Pirates and Non-Europeans

Faculty Research Mentor:   Richard Frohock, English

 

This project represents an analysis of early pirates and their relationships with non-Europeans. From the early sea dogs to the golden age of piracy, this humanities research group studies a series of literary texts to understand how they represent the relationship of pirates with non-Europeans. Some imagined alliances as a key to advancing English goals in the New World; for others, conflicts between pirates and non-Europeans illustrated the self-serving and brutal nature of their plundering voyages. Beginning in the 16th century with texts about Sir Francis Drake, we consider how writers often romanticized first accounts of pirates and native groups forming alliances. We next consider how some 17th-century buccaneers continued the rhetoric of mutually beneficial relationships, while others rejected the idea of alliance and instead showed plunderers inhumanely seizing Native American resources and exploiting the people themselves. The 18th century furnishes several accounts, such as the General History of the Pyrates (1724), that depict pirate settlements on the island of Madagascar; these pirate utopias often disintegrate into dystopias as relations across ethnic and racial groups collapse. This poster presentation will also include consideration of John Gay’s Polly (1729), an engaging satire that concludes that pirate crews were just as prejudiced as the forces of colonization they rebelled against.

 

E-20     Drake Geeteh

Research Collaborators:  Saber Brasher and Abby Livingston

Research Presentation Title:  Urban Heat Islands in Oklahoma

Faculty Research Mentor:  Peter Crank, Geography

 

In urban areas, energy emitted from massive quantities of people, cars, and buses creates heat. The buildup of heat in urban areas relative to surrounding rural areas is referred to as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Urban heat island phenomena are a growing concern, particularly in cities where most people live and are predicted to continue to grow. In this study, we focus on the prominence of the urban heat island in the city of Tulsa, utilizing temperature and land cover data to measure the significance of these phenomena. Specifically, we examine land cover data related to urban heat islands in Tulsa and compare it with weather data from Richard Jones and Tulsa International airports. By doing so, we aim to understand the nature of the Tulsa UHI and the implications and impacts of the Tulsa UHI for urban planning and public health.

The most significant impact of UHI phenomena is on public health. Older adults, children, minority groups, low-income groups, those living alone, and those with chronic diseases will tend to be even more vulnerable to the excessive heat expedited by UHI’s. Ultimately, our findings can help explain how to mitigate the negative effects of urban heat islands and create more sustainable and livable cities. In addition to public health concerns, the UHI phenomena can also have a significant impact on urban planning. The presence of excessive heat may cause cities to experience amplified energy consumption. This can have economic and environmental consequences, such as higher utility costs and increased air pollution. By communicating factors that contribute to UHI’s, urban planners will be able to design more sustainable cities that can reduce urban overheating and energy costs associated with increasing population and urbanization.

 

E-21     Abby Livingston

Research Collaborators:  Saber Brasher

Research Presentation Title:  Linkages Between Oklahoma Water Availability and Irrigated Agriculture

Faculty Research Mentor:  Saber Brasher, Geography

 

Oklahoma ranks 4th in the nation for land dedicated to agricultural activities and grows a variety of crops, with winter wheat, hay, cotton, and corn being the most produced. In recent years, irrigation has increased to produce cotton and corn, much of which is grown in the drier western half of the state. Cotton and corn are both planted in spring and harvested in fall, making them susceptible to increasing summer temperatures and periods of sustained drought. To better understand the water implications for corn and cotton production, this study focuses on three Oklahoma counties: 1. Texas, the highest producer of corn, 2. Jackson, the highest producer of cotton, and 3. Tillman, the 2nd highest producer of cotton and 5th highest producer of corn from 2010-2020. USGS streamflow data, well level data, and Oklahoma Mesonet precipitation, temperature, and soil moisture data are used along with crop coverage for each county from the USDA’s CroplandCROS to assess relationships between hydrometeorological variables, temperature, and corn/ cotton production over a period that has largely been marked by drought in Oklahoma. As the climate continues to trend hotter and the demand for irrigation increases in Oklahoma, assessing the correlations between the climate, surface and groundwater, and crop water demand (both in terms of acreage used for cotton and corn but also water available for crops in the soils) will provide instrumental in understanding Oklahoma’s agriculture under warmer and dryer conditions.

 

E-22     Nadia Valles

Research Presentation Title:  The Rural Impact: Analyzing Latino Communities’ Political Ideologies

Faculty Research Mentor:  Sarah Foss, History

 

The Rural Impact: Analyzing Latino Communities’ Political Ideologies

With the beginning of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, Oklahoma began seeing Mexican immigrants moving into the state in large numbers (Oklahoma History Center). These communities have become major contributors to the state’s culture, but their historical accounts haven’t been a focus in Oklahoma oral history research, specifically those residing in rural Oklahoma. Partnering with the Oklahoma Oral History Research Program, the oral history interviews examine Latino individuals’ experiences in Hennessey, Oklahoma. Latino communities are becoming the fastest-growing racial group in the United States, and the political impact they have can become salient. The individuals interviewed provide an insight to their personal stories and what factors in rural Oklahoma have shaped their political ideologies. Along with interviews conducted, I am analyzing other oral histories and archives to have a larger scope on how Latino communities view themselves generally and in comparison to the political beliefs of the communities residing in urban areas. My research presentation will discuss how Latinos in Hennessey identify politically, and how their experiences in a rural, fossil fuel community have shaped those ideologies.

 

E-23     Tara Bartley

Research Collaborators:  Olivia Anderson, Tony Montgomery Jr., Allen Redinger, Breanne Baker, and Taylor Dinyer-McNeely

Research Presentation Title:  Muscular Fatigue Throughout the Menstrual Cycle: Does Oral Contraceptive Use Matter?

Faculty Research Mentor:  Breanne Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

The varying mechanisms of muscular fatigue have been extensively studied but the majority of hypotheses, data, and conclusions exclude female participants. This obvious sex gap is further complicated by complex profiles of ovarian steroids in women across the menstrual cycle and use of hormonal contraceptives, which may influence these measures of muscular fatigue and overall athletic performance. PURPOSE: To assess performance fatigability across three phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular, ovulation, luteal) during resistance exercise performed to failure at low and high loads in naturally menstruating (NM) women and oral contraceptive pill (OCP) users. METHODS: Eighteen women (OCP users n=5; NM n=13) who are 21.7 ± 2.4 years old, 163.9 ± 6.4 cm tall, and 69.8 ± 15.7 kg heavy are currently participating in this study. All participants have provided informed consent prior to completing eight total visits including a total body Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan, a one-repetition maximum (1RM) for the deadlift, and repetitions to failure at low- (40%1RM) and high- (70%1RM) loads, on separate visits. On visits 3-8, participants completed a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on the mid-thigh pull dynamometer before and immediately after performing repetitions to failure to measure performance fatigability (%∆ in pre- vs. post-exercise MVC). Each visit was scheduled according to menstrual cycle phase over the course of two full cycles. Exploratory one-way ANOVAs were used to assess menstrual group differences for performance fatigability at both loads, with partial eta2 (pη2) used to convey effect size, and α=0.05. RESULTS: This is an ongoing investigation; however, a preliminary report shows performance fatigability for OCP users (57.20 ± 3.30%) was significantly greater than NM women (27.17 ± 15.08%, pη2= 0.541, p=0.038) at 40%1RM. Although no significant differences were observed between groups (pη2=0.52, p=0.169) at 70%1RM, performance fatigability for OCP users (44.28 ± 8.2%) was greater than NM women (27.80 ± 10.81%). DISCUSSION: Based on these exploratory analyses and preliminary findings, NM women may be more fatigue resistant compared to OCP users throughout the menstrual cycle. Further, resistance training to failure at low loads may induce greater performance fatigability compared to high loads.

 

E-24     Ella David

Research Collaborators:  Allen Redinger, Sloane Montgomery, Shawn Allen, Michael Trevino, and Breanne Baker

Research Presentation Title:  Lower Leg Musculotendinous Injury Risk in Division I Track and Field and Cross-Country Athletes

Faculty Research Mentor:  Breanne Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

Track and field and Cross-Country (TFXC) athletes engage in strenuous, frequent high running mileage. Although beneficial for development, these chronic loading patterns may put athletes at an elevated risk for severe overuse injuries such as Achilles tendinopathy. The lack of research pertaining to assessment of high injury risk muscular and tendon regions warrants evaluation for athlete health and career longevity. PURPOSE: To compare lower leg muscle and Achilles tendon characteristics using diagnostic muscular ultrasound between NCAA Division I TFXC athletes and matched controls. METHODS: Thirty TFXC athletes (female n=21, male n=9) and their sex-, age- (±2yrs), weight- (±5kg) matched controls who were physically active ≥3 d/wk, provided voluntary informed consent and completed detailed injury reports encompassing their athletic and active career, respectively. Real-time brightness mode ultrasonography assessed muscle cross-sectional area and muscle quality-indicative subcutaneous fat-corrected muscle echo intensity, of the inner and outer calf and shin muscles. Achilles tendon thickness was measured at its insertion (heel) and origin (calf) sites. Group comparisons were conducted using a univariate analysis, controlling for individual leg lean mass for muscle characteristics, Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated, and α=0.050. RESULTS: Over 40% of athletes reported one or more lower leg stress-injuries throughout their competitive history compared to 15% of controls (p=0.009). Athletes’ dominant and non-dominant muscles corrected echo intensity, indicative of muscle quality were better (all p≤0.002; d=0.72-1.01) but cross-sectional area were similar between groups (all p≥0.434; d=0.015-0.204). Dominant leg Achilles tendon insertion and connection thickness was greater in athletes (all p≤0.018; d=0.664-1.224) but between leg percent asymmetry were similar between groups (all p≥0.081; d=0.197-0.500). CONCLUSION: Although muscle quality was superior for athletes in the lower leg, the Achilles tendon was also thicker at injury-prone sites, indicating elevated injury-risk in a group that ran over 50 miles over six days per week on average per person. While high training volume may be common for athletic development and muscular optimization, frequency may be detrimental for protective tissue accrual and tendon health. This comprehensive assessment can serve as a pertinent indicator of injury risk for coaching and sports medicine staff.

 

E-25     Diego Diazvega

Research Collaborators:  Nicholas Spokely and Shawn Allen

Research Presentation Title:  Novel Assessment of Muscular Power in Older Adults: A Pilot Study

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bree Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

Muscular power is a strong predictor of fall risk, and in older adults is commonly measured in a laboratory using knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer (DYNA) or in the field using the five repetition sit-to-stand (5STS) assessment. Despite these tests being validated, they only measure lower-body power, and there is currently no safe, validated, field test of total-body muscular power. PURPOSE: This pilot study aimed to validate a novel standing medicine ball toss (MBT) as a measurement for total-body power. METHODS: 24 participants (male n=6, female n=18, aged 33.8 ± 17.2 years) completed DYNA, 5STS, and MBT, in that respective order. For DYNA, five repetitions were performed at a knee extension speed of 180°/s; the average power in watts was recorded for the top three performances. During the 5STS, participants stood up and sat back down five times as quickly as they could; the time was recorded and averaged across three trials. Lastly, the MBT was performed using a ten-pound medicine ball and participants were cued to drop back on their dominant leg and quickly explode back into the start position while releasing the medicine ball in a chest pass motion; the average distance in meters was recorded across three trials. All three tests were completed with 45 seconds of rest between trials, and three to five minutes of rest between assessments. For statistical analyses, Pearson Correlations were used to determine the relationships between the three tests, α≤0.05. RESULTS: Participants were 167.0 ± 8.8 cm tall and 75.9 ± 20.1 kg heavy. A significant positive correlation was found between MBT and DYNA (rs=0.814; p<.001); however, there was no significant correlations between MBT and 5STS (p=0.150) and DYNA and 5STS (p=0.487). CONCLUSION: The MBT may be a valid assessment of total-body power as shown by the positive correlation between MBT and the lab gold-standard assessment, DYNA. Furthermore, older participants tolerated all three tests well; but interestingly, 66% preferred the MBT. Overall, more data collection across many age groups is underway and will further inform these relationships and if they differ based on sex or age group.

 

E-26     Madison Evans

Research Collaborators:  Allen Redinger, Sloane Montgomery, Shawn Allen, and Breanne Baker

Research Presentation Title:  Muscle Strength and Power Imbalances and ACL Injury Risk in Division I Softball Athletes

Faculty Research Mentor:  Breanne Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

Softball requires development of lower body strength and power but specific demands may lead to asymmetries. These adaptive imbalances such as quadriceps to hamstrings (H:Q) ratio may impact performance and increase risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, potentially altering an athletes’ career. PURPOSE: To compare body composition and lower body strength, power, and imbalances using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) body composition scans and isokinetic dynamometry, respectively between softball athletes and matched controls. METHODS: Twenty softball athletes (n=20) were matched with age- (±2yrs) and weight- (±5kg) controls who were physically active ≥3 d/wk. All participants provided voluntary informed consent, filled out physical activity frequency questionnaires, and completed a total body DXA scan to asses total body and regional muscle and fat tissue mass. They then tested their dominant and non-dominant quadriceps and hamstrings strength and power at three different velocities (60, 120, 180 deg/sec). Group comparisons were conducted using a univariate analysis after controlling for individual leg muscle mass, Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated, and α=0.050. RESULTS: Athletes (20.0±1.7 years old, 163.0±34.1cm, 72.2±7.3kg) and controls (20.2±1.0years old, 166.7±7.5cm, 71.5±7.2kg) were similar for age, height, bodyweight (all p≥0.643), and average resistance training frequency per week (p=0.611; d=0.16). Athletes indicated greater total body and dominant and non-dominant leg lean mass (all p≤0.050; d=0.64-0.75) but were similar for leg fat mass (all p≥0.095; d=0.47-0.53) to controls. Athletes demonstrated greater torque at all speeds for both quadriceps and hamstrings (all p≤0.022; d=0.47-1.32) after correcting for leg lean mass. Quadriceps strength asymmetry was similar (p≥0.992; d=0.00) but power was different (p≤0.038; d=0.65) between groups. Strength and power H:Q  ratio were superior in athletes for their dominant leg (all p≤0.050; d=0.61-0.76) but similar in their non-dominant leg (all p≥0.563; d=0.19-0.57) compared to controls although all athletes fell below the optimal ratio percentage of 65% (all ≤51.6%). CONCLUSION: These data suggest sport-related demands superiorly develop lower body strength and power but may elicit asymmetrical imbalances, increasing risk of ACL injury. Findings of this nature provide insight to performance and sports medicine staff on career-impacting injury risk and support assessment of regional, isolated tissue and torque characteristics.

 

E-27     Colin Green

Research Collaborators:  Allen Redinger, Sloane Montgomery, Shawn Allen, Nicholas Spokely, Olivia Anderson, Michael Trevino and Breanne Baker

Research Presentation Title:  Musculoskeletal Characteristics in Division I Track and Field and Cross-Country Athletes

Faculty Research Mentor:  Breanne Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

Track and field and Cross-Country (TFXC) athletes engage in chronic repetitive loading patterns contributing to a high incidence of lower extremity musculoskeletal stress-related injuries (MSI). Research linking skeletal health, muscle morphology, and force production may provide insight to these injuries’ etiology. PURPOSE: To compare lower body bone and muscle characteristics using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) bone scans, diagnostic muscular ultrasound, and isokinetic dynamometry between TFXC athletes and matched controls. METHODS: Thirty TFXC athletes (female n=21, male n=9) were matched with age- (±2yrs), weight- (±5kg), and sex-matched controls who were physically active ≥3 d/wk. All participants provided voluntary informed consent and filled out injury logs, before completing total body and dual-hip DXA scans. Muscle thickness, pennation angle, and subcutaneous fat-corrected muscle echo intensity were taken of the vastus lateralis of each leg using ultrasound. Lastly, maximal voluntary isometric contractions were conducted to determine quadricep peak force and rate of force development of each leg. Group comparisons were conducted using a univariate analysis, controlling for individual leg lean mass, Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated, and α=0.050. RESULTS: Athletes (20.4±1.8 yrs, 170.7±7.7cm, 60.1±7.8kg) and controls (20.5±1.5 yrs, 168.2±7.9cm, 60.5±7.7kg) were similar for age, height, and weight (all p≥0.222). Over 85% of athletes reported one or more lower extremity MSI throughout their competitive history compared to 40% of controls (p=0.001), equating to an average of three MSI’s per athlete (all p<0.001; d=0.95). Athletes’ dominant and non-dominant leg and hip bone health measurements (all p<0.001; d=0.47-1.00), muscle quality determining echo intensity (all p<0.004; d=0.76-0.83), maximal force (all p<0.001; d=0.06-0.25), and rate of force development were superior before and after statistical correction (all p≤0.01; d=0.09-0.53) compared to controls. CONCLUSION: TFXC athletes demonstrate consistently high training volume, allowing for superior development of regional bone health, muscle quality, and force producing capabilities compared to non-athletes. While on the surface, this training elicits benefit, these data suggest chronic loading may lead to increased number of overuse injuries. This study is ongoing and will continue to collect data to better determine the strongest factors associated with these MSIs.

 

E-28     Maddie Holt

Research Collaborators:  Allen Redinger, Sloane Montgomery, Shawn Allen, and Breanne Baker

Research Presentation Title:  Body Composition and Skeletal Health Characteristics in Division I Softball Athletes

Faculty Research Mentor:  Breanne Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

Softball athletes’ sport demands often require chronic, repetitive motions of the same limb. These specific loading patterns may elicit bone health and body composition asymmetries, potentially leading to elevated risk of long-term imbalances. Research pertaining to regional musculoskeletal composition asymmetries may provide insight to training and sport-specific adaptations. PURPOSE: To compare total body, dominant, and non-dominant limb bone, muscle, and fat tissue characteristics using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) bone and body composition scans between softball athletes and matched controls. METHODS: Twenty softball athletes (n=20) were matched with age- (±2yrs), weight- (±5kg), and sex-matched controls who were physically active ≥3 d/wk. All participants provided voluntary informed consent and filled out injury and current exercise frequency questionnaires, before completing total body, lumbar spine, and dual-hip DXA scans. Total body and regional muscle and fat mass, and bone health measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were obtained from each scan. Group comparisons were conducted using a univariate analysis after controlling for total body and individual arm and leg lean mass, Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated, and α=0.050. RESULTS: Athletes (20.0±1.7 yrs, 163.0±34.1cm, 72.2±7.3kg) and controls (20.2±1.0years old, 166.7±7.5cm, 71.5±7.2kg) were similar for age, height, and weight (all p≥0.643). Average resistance training days per week were similar between groups (p=0.611; d=0.16) but high-impact plyometric training frequency was greater in athletes (p<0.001; d=1.20). All bone health measurements regardless of location, were superior in athletes, compared to controls (all p<0.001; d=0.59-1.24). Athlete percent difference asymmetry between dominant and non-dominant limb muscle and fat mass, BMC, and BMD were not different compared to controls (all p≥0.394; d=0.06-0.27) except for arm BMC and BMD (all p≤0.001; d=1.03-1.21). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the combination of sport and plyometrics training elicited superior bone health and muscle measurements in athletes. Although arm muscle and fat asymmetry differences were not present between groups, bone health asymmetry differences may be attributed to chronic dominant-limb training and muscular efficiency. These findings may provide insight to performance staff, coaching, and sports medicine members to unique sport-related and training musculoskeletal adaptation and asymmetries.

 

E-29     Macie Sells and Chloe Eiselt

Research Collaborators:  Tim Passmore and Brandt Brickell

Research Presentation Title:  Community-based Recreational Therapy Balance training for individuals with Parkinson’s disease: A Case Report

Faculty Research Mentor:  Tim Passmore, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

INTRODUCTION: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that is due to the degradation of dopamine production and the misfiring or neurons due to the lack of dopamine production. This causes miscommunication with the midbrain and the neurons that control movement and other neurological functioning. Symptoms include asymmetrical tremors in extremities, stiffness in movement, postural instability, and speech issues. This case study features one participant who participated in longitudinal study conducted by OSU Recreational Therapy program. METHODS: Participants who have been diagnosed with PD engage in weekly, one hour treatment session featuring warm-up, strengthening, balance, gait training, boxing, and tai chi activities. Monthly assessments were collected to gain information on monthly changes in mood, activity, medication effectiveness, functional movement, and postural stability. RESULTS: Pre and post data was collected and month to month mean differences were statistically analyzed. HADS(A), HADS(D), MFES, TUG, and BioSway assessments were conducted. Participant PD10 participated in program and data was collected over a time frame of 18 months. In this time, PD10 decreased their TUG time by 2.88 seconds, increased their postural stability on the BioSway assessment, increased their confidence in not falling as found on MFES assessments, and maintained their levels of anxiety and depression according to the HADS assessment. CONCLUSION: Results show that PD10 improved and then maintained their improvements over the course of 18 months. With the known degenerative nature of PD, maintenance of physical functioning and mood over a significant time frame is significant in a clinical sense as this will assist the individual in maintaining their independence for a longer time. Monthly assessments also show that when a setback occurs, in this case a fall, participants can recover pre fall functioning levels. This evidence goes to show how a community-based group treatment can be a beneficial and cost-effective manner to help individuals in communities that lack diverse treatment options for those who have been diagnosed with PD.

 

E-30     Alexandra Tutor

Research Collaborators:  Shane Hammer

Research Presentation Title:  Effects of resistance training of the foot on dance-related exercise and performance

Faculty Research Mentor:  Taylor Dinyer-McNeely, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

The injury rate in dancers is higher than their mainstream counterparts, as dancers have a 90% injury rate compared to a 20% rate observed in rugby and football athletes. Even so, preventative equipment or techniques, such as braces or taping to keep the rate of injury down are less available to dancers to maintain the aesthetic appeal of the sport. Specifically, dancers are expected to perform barefoot or in tight shoes that reduce the ability of the foot to move freely, leading to injuries and disorders from high impact landings that cause the dancer to stop performing. This shocking injury rate and lack of preventative equipment is why it is important for dancers to engage in muscle strengthening exercises to reduce injury and improve performance. The high impact nature of the sport calls for training interventions that focus on the feet in order to provide stability during dance movements and maintain the aesthetics for performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to improve balance and force production during dance-related movements following a resistance training protocol. We will recruit 12 dancers to complete a 6-week resistance training intervention consisting of resistance band, single-leg, and rehabilitation exercises that are completed 3 times per week. Prior to the start of and immediately following the resistance training program, the dancers will come to the lab to complete pre- and post-testing measures. For pre- and post-training measures, the dancers will perform a series of tests to examine balance and stability, landing force following a leap, and maximal isometric force production of the foot musculature. These tests are designed to determine the effects of resistance training on variables associated with dance performance. Statistical analyses (p≤0.05) will include paired samples t-tests to examine changes in balance, leap force, and maximal isometric force production following the 6-week resistance training protocol. Due to the limited research available in dancers, the results from this study will provide pertinent information about preventative techniques dancers can implement to improve dance-related movements.

 

E-31     Katy Whitt

Research Collaborators:  Sloane Montgomery, Shawn Allen, Allen Redinger, Olivia Anderson, Nicholas Spokley and Breanne Baker

Research Presentation Title:  Concussion and sleep differences among female college athletes and non-athletes

Faculty Research Mentor:  Breanne Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

Previous studies suggest that concussions lead to acute sleep disturbances potentially impairing injury recovery. However, little is known about the relationship between concussion history, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep apnea, and body mass; all of which may be especially important in collegiate athletes at risk for poor sleep and concussions. PURPOSE: To compare anthropometrics, concussion history, and sleep between female college athletes and active non-athlete controls. METHODS: A total of 67 women from OSU soccer (n=22), OSU softball (n=25), and physically active non-athlete controls (n=20) provided voluntary informed consent prior to participation. All women self-reported concussion history and completed three validated sleep-related questionnaires: the Eppsworth Sleepiness Scale, STOP-BANG, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); which estimate the probability of excessive daytime sleepiness, risk of obstructive sleep apnea, and sleep quality, respectively. One-way ANOVAs with Least Significant Differences post hoc analyses were used to assess group differences for all anthropometric and questionnaire variables. Pearson’s correlations and linear regression were ran to define the relationships between concussion history and sleep questionnaire results, p=0.05. RESULTS: As a whole, participants were 20.0 ± 1.5 years old, 66.5 ± 6.6 cm tall, and 71.8 ± 7.2 kg heavy. Softball was taller and heavier than soccer and taller than controls (all post hoc p≤0.030). Soccer had nearly six times more concussions than Softball and Controls (both post hoc p≤ 0.001). For sleep measures all groups were equivalent for Eppsworth Score (p=0.076) and unlikely to be abnormally sleepy. Soccer scored significantly worse on the STOP-BANG than Softball and Controls (post hoc p≤ 0.023); however, all participants scored within the low-risk category for obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep quality scores from the PSQI indicated no statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.287), but clinical categorizations indicate soccer and softball have poor sleep while controls scored within the normal category. Worse sleep scores on all surveys was significantly correlated with a greater number of concussions (r ranged 0.268-0.517; p≤0.033). Lastly, PSQI and STOP-BANG scores predicted 29.6% of the variability in concussion incidence (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Greater incidence of concussion appears to lead to poorer sleep metrics, which is independent of anthropometrics.

 

E-32     Karley Wolf and Faith Wood

Research Collaborators:  Tim Passmore, Brandt Brickell and Faith Wood

Research Presentation Title:  Balance based Recreational Therapy Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease: A Case Report

Faculty Research Mentor:  Tim Passmore, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

Introduction : A community based recreational therapy treatment program for individuals diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) has demonstrated positive clinical outcomes and trends. The following case report features one individual who actively participated in the established treatment program. The recreational therapist led program includes a variety of cognitive-motor activities that target the participant’s balance, coordination, motor function, and physical endurance and strengthening modalities. PD is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that causes degeneration of the neurons within the brain that control movement. PD affects roughly 90,000 Americans and approximately ten million people worldwide [1]. Symptoms commonly associated with PD are asymmetrical tremors, accompanied by stiffness of muscles, and/or regression of movement, and decrease in life satisfaction. Other symptoms associated with PD are difficulty walking, altered behavioral or mental states, as well as sleep problems and memory challenges [2]. Methods Recreational Therapy can be used to treat symptoms of Parkinson’s disease through treatments which focus on activity-based interventions addressing issues associated with balance, gait, and improving or maintaining levels of strength (Passmore, 2022). The specific treatments/modalities utilized in the program included chair stretching, coordination games, strengthening exercise with weighted balls (4, lbs.), cognitive-motor boxing training, standing and seated balance training, gait training, and Thai Chi. The modalities were delivered in a group sessions within the community setting. Monthly assessments were collected using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES), Timed Up and Go (TUG) and BioDex BioSway (BioSway) Measurements. Results: Measurement of initial and monthly progress was collected, and trends were analyzed for clinical differences and significance. Trends, while not statistically significant, were clinically significant as the participant improved in one of the four assessments, decreasing their TUG time by 1 sec, and maintaining their mean scores in the HADS, MFES, and BioSway assessments through the 18-month treatment and assessment period. Conclusion: Positive trends in assessment data give evidence to the success of this recreational therapist led community-based training for individuals diagnosed with PD. This evidence could be used to help other communities gain support to create similar programs nationwide.

 

E-33     Faith Wood and Karley Wolf

Research Collaborators:  Brandt Brickell and Tim Passmore

Research Presentation Title:  Balance based Recreational Therapy Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease: A Case Report

Faculty Research Mentor:  Tim Passmore, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

Introduction: A community based recreational therapy treatment program for individuals diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) has demonstrated positive clinical outcomes and trends. The following case report features one individual who actively participated in the established treatment program. The recreational therapist led program includes a variety of cognitive-motor activities that target the participant’s balance, coordination, motor function, and physical endurance and strengthening modalities. PD is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that causes degeneration of the neurons within the brain that control movement. PD affects roughly 90,000 Americans and approximately ten million people worldwide [1]. Symptoms commonly associated with PD are asymmetrical tremors, accompanied by stiffness of muscles, and/or regression of movement, and decrease in life satisfaction. Other symptoms associated with PD are difficulty walking, altered behavioral or mental states, as well as sleep problems and memory challenges [2]. Methods: Recreational Therapy can be used to treat symptoms of Parkinson’s disease through treaatments which focus on activity-based interventions addressing issues associated with balance, gait, and improving or maintaining levels of strength (Passmore, 2022). The specific treatments/modalities utilized in the program included chair stretching, coordination games, strengthening exercise with weighted balls (4, lbs.), cognitive-motor boxing training, standing and seated balance training, gait training, and Thai Chi. The modalities were delivered in a group sessions within the community setting. Monthly assessments were collected using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES), Timed Up and Go (TUG) and BioDex BioSway (BioSway) Measurements. Results: Measurement of initial and monthly progress was collected, and trends were analyzed for clinical differences and significance. Trends, while not statistically significant, were clinically significant as the participant improved in one of the four assessments, decreasing their TUG time by 1 sec, and maintaining their mean scores in the HADS, MFES, and BioSway assessments through the 18-month treatment and assessment period. Conclusion: Positive trends in assessment data give evidence to the success of this recreational therapist led community-based training for individuals diagnosed with PD. This evidence could be used to help other communities gain support to create similar programs nationwide.

 

E-34     Mia Young

Research Collaborators:  Shawn Allen, Allen Redinger, Grace White, Jillian Joyce and Breanne Baker

Research Presentation Title:  Are Dietary Quality and Sleep Quality Linked in Collegiate Track & Field Athletes?

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bree Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation

 

Previous studies suggest the consumption of specific foods can influence sleep quality through the disruption of the circadian rhythm. One key demographic this relationship might impact is student-athletes, who have been shown to have poor sleep such as collegiate cross-country and track and field (XC+T&F) athletes. However, to date, no investigations have described this relationship in this cohort.  PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the cross-sectional connection between sleep, nutrient intake, and dietary quality (DQ) in Division I XC+T&F athletes. METHODS: Twenty-five (male n=5, female n=20) XC+T&F athletes completed the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Automatic Self-Administered Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24) for nutrient intake and the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI) for DQ. All dietary measures were compared between those who had normal (<5) or poor (≥5) PSQI scores using an independent t-test framework, alpha was set at p=0.05. RESULTS: When considering total HEI scores, normal sleepers scored 68 out of 100, while poor sleepers scored 61 out of 100, which was not statistically different (p=0.263). However, when looking at specific macro- and micronutrients, normal sleepers reported a greater percentage of Dietary Reference Intakes achieved for vitamins A (p=0.041), K (p=0.036), and B1 (p=0.033) Additionally, those who reported normal sleep quality also consumed significantly more copper (p=0.032) and selenium (p=0.043). Lastly, statistical differences in folate (p=0.056), potassium (p=0.055), and total calories from protein (p=0.058) were trending toward potential statistical significance suggesting consumption of these nutrients may be greater in athletes with normal sleep scores compared to those who reported poorer sleep. CONCLUSION: This study supports previous findings in non-athlete cohorts that higher intakes of dietary vitamin A and vitamin K are associated with improved sleep quality. Athletes should be encouraged to regularly assess their diet to identify potential food groups and nutrients that may be lacking and potentially impacting their sleep quality. These data were collected in May 2022 with a relatively small sample size, but our team is currently analyzing additional data from August and November 2022 to further characterize if these conclusions are associated with sex, body mass, and event designation.

 

E-35     Alison Conway

Research Presentation Title:  Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions: A Behavioral and Manneristic Comparison of High-context and Low-context Countries

Faculty Research Mentor:  Professor Christopher Pogue, Management Science and Information Systems

 

This research paper investigates the relationship between Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the personal and professional mannerisms and behaviors of high-context and low-context countries. It addresses the central question of whether defining the behavior of these countries using cultural dimensions can enhance global cultural intelligence. The use of Hofstede's cultural dimensions to analyze and compare different cultures is not new; however, this research could provide new insights, as it examines all six cultural dimensions to provide a more comprehensive understanding of how it impacts the citizenry behavior of countries. Patterns and relationships can be identified by collecting and analyzing, primarily, quantitative methods of collected statistical data on cultural dimensions in varying contexts countries, as this research is still under development. The findings suggest that Hofstede's cultural dimensions significantly impact the communication styles and mannerisms of high and low-context countries, filling a gap in previous research. The significance of this research lies in its potential to bridge cultural gaps and improve cross-cultural communication within individuals and organizations, ultimately bettering intercultural understanding and cooperation. The research adds to the growing body of literature on cultural intelligence and emphasizes the importance of Hofstede's cultural dimensions in developing cross-cultural competence. Overall, this study contributes to our understanding of cultural differences and provides a new perspective on how to understand and approach cross-cultural communication.

 

E-36     Zyneycea Deffenbaugh

Research Collaborators:  Joshua Jansa and Rebekah Herrick

Research Presentation Title:  Race and Registration Roadblocks Enclosed in American Voting

Faculty Research Mentor:  Joshua Jansa and Rebekah Herrick, Political Science

 

An essential value and duty in our American democracy is voting. However, registration can serve as a major conflict that can depress and discourage certain voters from participating in the process. Certain laws within registration can serve as roadblocks that prohibit racial and ethnic minorities from actively engaging in American elections. Due to this, voting turnout is significantly lower among minorities as opposed to their white counterparts. This research project's main focal point is to address the cumulative data of voting procedures by analyzing five key registration laws: Registration Deadline, Registration Portability, Online Registration Access, Ability to Preregister, and Automatic Voter Registration. The form of measurement that will be used to examine the effects of these specific registration laws is the Difficulty of Registration Index (DORI).This measurement will be used to assess whether states with higher DORI scores have larger racial turnout gaps as well as if states with larger racial and ethnic minority populations have systematically higher DORI scores. In this project, Race and Registration Roadblocks Enclosed in American Voting, the objective relies on comprehending why our political system possesses inequalities that cause voter suppression and how this is impacting communities of color. American elections are the root of our representative democracy, but we must ensure that equality and voting accuracy is properly enforced in our constitutional monarchy.

 

E-37     Anna Langert

Research Presentation Title:  "Kids These Days Aren't Voting!" Did You?

Faculty Research Mentor:  Seth McKee, Political Science

 

Historically, young voters have averaged a substantially lower turnout rate than that of the comprehensive voter turnout rate in the United States. The question is why? Why aren’t young voters mobilized to vote at the same rate of any other given age group? Young voter turnout has seen a rise since the 2000 presidential election, however, still holds the title of the lowest voting age group. In 1971 the voting age was lowered federally from 21 to 18, one would be inclined to think that with a wider range of people allowed to vote, the voter turnout would grow, and yet that has not been the case. Throughout the duration of this research project, I will be examining the relationship between young voter turnout ages 18-29 from 1972 to 2020, through presidential elections, and diving into what could be the cause of lower turnout outcomes comparatively to older age groups. The purpose of this research is to devise what the difference is between young voters and other age groups, more specifically, what is incentivizing older age groups that has yet to impact the youth? This paper will first examine the quantitative data of voter turnout rates within the timeline to understand how wide the gap between voting age groups is. The second portion of the paper will serve to address the more qualitative aspects of what the difference is between voting age groups such as political knowledge, political education, and parental political activity. Finally, we will examine the results to conclude what prompts voter turnout, as to create a better understanding of how to inspire young voters to show up at the polls on election day.

 

E-38     Maria Lopez

Research Collaborators:  Howard Sanborn

Research Presentation Title:  Hong Kong: Youth Activism and Public Policies

Faculty Research Mentor:  Howard Sanborn, Political Science

 

The Hong Kong protests of the last decade have been spearheaded by young residents who have felt frustrated that their voices have not been heard in an adult-dominated, elite-driven society under authoritarian rule. Their campaign for policies and political reform, such as the 2012 Moral and National Education (MNE) protest and the 2014 Umbrella Movement, have made headlines across the world. The 2019 Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill (anti-ELAB) movement especially highlights this youth activism. To further their efforts in 2019, protesters took lessons not only from past experiences during the MNE and Umbrella protests, but also from external social movements. These external influences have included messaging and slogans used by Hong Kong activists from other political social movements in places, such as Catalan, Xinjiang, Taiwan, and the United States. The spread of social media contributes to the influences that these external factors have in Hong Kong government politics. In addition, underlying and continuations of previous protests can be connected to more recent protests. Incidentally, previous scholars have discussed the motivating factors for protests in Hong Kong. The analysis of these organizations will help us answer important questions that demonstrate how protests affect the views that others have towards Hong Kong and its governments. By using primary and secondary sources from databases and law journals, I will analyze these connections to the past and recent protests in Hong Kong. I will also explore how young activists impact policies being made through their social movements. Currently in progress, I expect to find various external influences in the activist culture in Hong Kong.

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