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Symposium Proceedings


Note: Presentations are grouped by the student’s area of research (based on the faculty mentor’s academic department), not the student’s academic major.


Poster Session F: 

2:45 - 3:45 pm

Agricultural Education, Communication and Leadership; Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation; Teachin, Learning, and Educational Sciences; Art, Graphic Design and Art History; English; History; Philosophy; Accounting; Agricultural Economics; Geography; Hospitality and Tourism Management; Management Science and Information Systems; Media and Strategic Communications; and Political Science (37 posters)




F-01     Hunter Carson

Research Collaborators:  Lauren Lewis Cline, Newlin Humphrey

Research Presentation Title:  Perceived Leadership Competency Development through a Short-Term Study Abroad Program in Costa Rica

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bradley M. Coleman, Agricultural Education, Communications, and Leadership


As complex issues arise in the agriculture industry, development of leadership competencies within a domestic and global context can ensure challenges are managed. Short term study abroad (STSA) programs provide participants with experiential learning opportunities and personal exploration. While STSA offers many benefits, accessibility can be limited due to finances, language barriers, opportunity cost, and perceived safety. With these barriers, observation of STSA programs and their relation to perceived leadership competency development in students is essential. We investigated the perceived development of leadership competencies among participants of an agricultural STSA to Costa Rica. Those who agreed to participate in the study (n = 72) ranged in age from 18 to 21.  Drawing upon the personal cultural competence enhancement framework (PCCEF) and the theory of social capital, the research explores participant perceptions through pre- and post-trip reflective statements, deferred post-experience focus groups, and supplementary data sources. Four main themes emerged from data analysis: a) development of cultural awareness and appreciation, b) recognition of own positional leadership roles, c) development of relationships with fellow participants, and d) the desire to disseminate gained knowledge and experiences. While participants reported increased cultural awareness and appreciation, limited cultural immersion opportunities were noted due to the structured nature of the program itinerary. Participants shared gained perspective of their unique professional roles and expansion of relationships among participants in similar positional roles, suggesting development of social capital and creation of a community of practice. Participants expressed a strong inclination to share acquired knowledge and experiences with their communities upon return. Recommendations for future STSA programs include careful consideration of program objectives, cost-benefit analysis, and participant outcomes. Domestic study tours may be preferable for programs focusing solely on social capital and agriculture exposure, while STSAs offer cultural exposure alongside these objectives. It is suggested that STSA programs incorporate frameworks for leadership development, including instructor frontloading. Future research could employ quantitative instruments to measure leadership development, cultural competence, and agriculture knowledge, providing further insights into the efficacy of STSAs.


F-02     Elizabeth Kopsky

Research Presentation Title:  Personal Development Needs of School-Based Agricultural Education Teachers Based on Personal and Professional Characteristics

Faculty Research Mentor:  Christopher Eck, Agricultural Education, Communications, and Leadership


The demand for teachers is constantly rising, and there is a correlation between those entering the teaching profession and the number of overall stressed teachers (Torres et al., 2009). Considering the personal development of teachers, this research seeks to determine how managing stressors associated with teaching school-based agricultural education (SBAE) are compounded by individual characteristics. Sorenson et al. (2016) explained that stress is often exacerbated by the lack of energy focused on personal needs while trying to manage a complete SBAE program (i.e., classroom/laboratory instruction, FFA, and supervised agricultural experiences). As part of a larger study, this non-experimental survey research-design employed a census approach to reach all Oklahoma SBAE teachers (N = 462). To achieve this goal, data was collected in person at 25 regional FFA degree checks across the state. In Oklahoma, all teachers attend FFA degree checks in their designated region over a two-week period in late January and early February. The research team traveled the state to provide an overview of the needs assessment, distribute the survey instrument, and collect completed hand-written questionnaires. There was a total of 328 completed instruments for data analysis, resulting in a 71.0% response rate. The individuals were asked to rank their current knowledge level and the relevance to the job on five statements related to teacher development. Individual characteristics (i.e., years teaching SBAE, number of teachers in their program, , pathway to certification, and highest degree earned) we considered as potential factors impacting teacher development. Participants identified a greater relevance of items to their careers than their current knowledge level based on Ranked Discrepancy Scores (RDS). Specifically, the greatest teacher development needs of SBAE teachers overall were found to be managing stress (RDS = -31.91), managing paperwork (RDS = -23.10), and balancing work and personal life (RDS = -22.80). The negative RDS values demonstrate the need for professional development focused on balancing work and personal life, ultimately allowing SBAE teachers to be more successful and effective across their complete program. While all SBAE teachers in Oklahoma demonstrated a need related to teacher development, this need varies based on individual characteristics. 


F-03     Mattie Mckee

Research Presentation Title:  Benefits of Introducing Agricultural Education Programs in Historical Black Public Schools 

Faculty Research Mentor:  Courtney Brown, Agricultural Education, Communications, and Leadership


This research explores the advantages of implementing agricultural education programs in historically Black public schools are investigated in this study. Acknowledging the pivotal role that agriculture plays in numerous facets of life, the economy, and the environment, the research highlights the lost chances that students in non-rural areas, especially those with a significant African American population, forfeit. Students in these schools are deprived of fundamental knowledge, useful skills, and agricultural values because agricultural education is not offered there. The research promotes equitable access to agricultural education for students of all races and backgrounds in an effort to address systemic deficiencies, biases, and exclusions. Using participatory drawing, the study uses a thorough qualitative methodology to examine students' perceptions of agriculture both before and after an immersive agricultural event. The purpose of the event is to introduce African American youth to agricultural science and culture. It also seeks to incite curiosity, alter perceptions, and inspire a dedication to agriculture. Increased interest in careers, the preservation of agricultural ties in marginalized neighborhoods, and economic revitalization are among the positive effects that are anticipated. The research timeline lists important dates such as proposal development, mentor selection, and the execution of the agriculture day event in April 2024. In historically Black schools, the research aims to plant the seeds of pride, opportunity, and cultural legacy through pertinent agricultural education. 


F-04     Molly Moody

Research Collaborators:  Dwayne Cartmell

Research Presentation Title:  College Students Food Choices and Social Environment Surrounding Food Consumption:  A Photovoice Project

Faculty Research Mentor:  Dwayne Cartmell, Agricultural Education, Communications, and Leadership


This research seeks to delve into the intricate dynamics influencing snack choices among college students, emphasizing healthiness, taste, convenience, and price. By synthesizing existing literature on food insecurity, Photovoice methodology, and empirical studies, this study aims to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of factors shaping food decisions. Through the innovative Photovoice research method, it endeavors to capture authentic insights into the real-world complexities of snack choices and the social environment surrounding food consumption among college students.  


F-05     Tara Bartley

Research Collaborators:  Olivia Anderson, Sloane Montgomery, Allen Redinger, Shawn Allen, Nicholas Spokely, Grace White, Jillian Joyce, Bree Baker

Research Presentation Title:  The Prevalence of Low Energy Availability in Collegiate Softball Athletes

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bree Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation


Chronic and problematic conditions of low energy availability (LEA) have been identified as the underlying cause of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDs), which is a condition that may lead to impaired physiological function and long-term health consequences. The REDs “spotlight” has often been on endurance and weight-restricted sports, but research in other team sports is limited. PURPOSE: To identify the prevalence of LEA in collegiate softball athletes during preseason and assess differences in health metrics based on risk of LEA. METHODS: Twenty-three females who were 20±2 years old, 165.5±32.5 cm tall, weighed 77.3±12.4 kg and were members of the Oklahoma State University softball team participated in this study. All participants provided informed consent prior to completing a single lab visit consisting of injury history and sleep quality questionnaires, a total body Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan, and a 24-hour dietary recall. The Harris-Benedict equation was used to calculate basal metabolic rate (BMR), with an activity factor of 1.5 to calculate total energy expenditure (TEE). BMR was subtracted from TEE to estimate exercise energy expenditure (EEE). Energy availability was calculated and reflected as kcal/kgLM/day: high risk <30 (n=15); moderate/low risk ≥30 (n=8). Group comparisons were made for anthropometrics, questionnaire responses, body composition, and skeletal health using Independent t-tests and Levene’s tests for equality of variances (α≤0.05). RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of athletes were at high-risk for LEA, indicating a high prevalence of this condition in this cohort. LEA groups were similar for anthropometrics, injury history, and most DXA measures (p≥0.131). However, athletes in the high-risk LEA group reported clinically poor sleep quality (5.6±3.1) and lower bone mineral density Z-Scores (0.7±1.1), compared to moderate/low risk who had normal sleep quality (4.3±0.7) and higher Z-Scores (1.4±0.9). DISCUSSION: The results of the current study showcase the high prevalence of LEA in a non-weight restricted and understudied sport. In addition, those at high-risk for LEA suffered worse sleep and displayed lower skeletal health measures, potentially putting them at an increased risk for injury. These findings provide a foundation for future research by exposing interventional targets for at-risk female athletes. 


F-06     Ella David

Research Collaborators:  Allen Redinger, Shawn Allen, Sloane Montgomery, Nicholas Spokely, Michael Trevino, and Bree Baker

Research Presentation Title: Seasonal Achilles Tendon Adaptations in Division I Cross-country and Track Athletes.

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bree Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation


Cross-country and Track athletes (XCT) undergo arduous training, often dictated by competitive season. These fluctuating demands influence tissues such as muscle and tendon which are crucial for performance but also demonstrate high injury rates. Specifically, the Achilles tendon and attached musculature are chronically loaded in XCT athletes and commonly injured. However, seasonal adaptive research is scarce, warranting evaluation to assist in athlete longevity. PURPOSE: To assess Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle size, architecture, and quality using diagnostic ultrasound in NCAA Division I XCT athletes across competitive seasons. METHODS: XCT athletes were assessed pre/post cross-country (XC; n=23) and post outdoor (n=14) seasons. Athletes began testing by completing informed consent and training frequency documents. Following this, Real-time brightness mode ultrasonography assessed cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo-intensity for bilateral Achilles tendons at the heel insertion and half distance and the medial and lateral gastrocnemii muscles. Repeated Measures ANOVA compared seasonal differences. Eta squared effect sizes were calculated and α=0.050. RESULTS: Achilles tendon and gastrocnemii CSA increased, and muscle echo-intensity increased but tendon echo-intensity decreased pre/post cross-country season (all p≤0.001; η2≥0.63), indicating more intramuscular fat and a less fibrous tendon. From post cross-country to outdoor season, both muscle and tendon CSA decreased with muscle echo-intensity decreasing and tendon echo-intensity increasing to near pre-cross-country levels (all p≤0.048; η2≥0.30). Although there was not a significant difference in weekly running mileage across seasons (all p>0.050; η2≤0.28) it decreased from pre-cross-country (56.7±27.3 mi/wk) to post-outdoor (44.9±32.0 mi/wk). CONCLUSION: These data indicate tissue morphological shifts based from the demands of cross-country and outdoor track seasons. While increased muscle size may be beneficial for performance, increased echo-intensity identifies a reduced tissue quality. However, this may be physiologically beneficial for prolonged distance running. Conversely, the increase in Achilles CSA and echo-intensity indicates a thicker and less fibrous tendon, increasing injury risk. The return of tissue characteristics to near baseline levels post-outdoor further demonstrates tissue adaptation linked with competitive demand through with a slight reduction in weekly mileage despite statistical insignificance. These findings support ultrasound seasonal evaluation of highly loaded regions to determine tissue adaptation and injury risk in athletic cohorts.


F-07     Colin Green

Research Collaborators:  Allen Redinger, Shawn Allen, Sloane Montgomery, Nicholas Spokely, Olivia Anderson, Michael Trevino, Bree Baker

Research Presentation Title: Cross-country Season Musculoskeletal and Force Adaptations in Division I Cross-country Athletes.

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bree Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation


Cross-country (XC) athletes’ seasonal demands can elicit unique adaptations to bone, muscle, and force profiles. During a competitive XC season, athletes undergo rigorous training demands and while necessary for performance improvement, these demands can impact musculoskeletal characteristics in various ways. To date, few studies have evaluated bone mineral and body composition measures, coinciding with muscle quality and force production. This literature gap warrants comprehensive, season-long evaluation to better understand physiological adaptations and injury risk caused by XC participation. PURPOSE: To assess lower body bone and body composition measures, muscle quality, and force production using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), diagnostic ultrasound, and isometric dynamometry in NCAA Division I XC athletes across the competitive season. METHODS: A total of 23 XC athletes completed pre/post testing. To start, athletes completed informed consent and training frequency documents followed by total body and dual hip DXA scans assessing bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), lean mass, and fat mass of the lower body. Real-time brightness mode ultrasonography assessed vastus lateralis quadriceps muscle echo-intensity, which is associated with muscle quality. Finally, bilateral knee extension isometric contractions were conducted, assessing peak force production. Paired t-tests compared pre/post season difference and α=0.050. RESULTS: Athlete bilateral leg BMC, BMD, lean and fat mass showed no change (all p>0.050). However, non-dominant hip BMC and BMD increased (all p≤0.010), while non-dominant femoral neck BMD decreased over time (p=0.020). Dominant leg peak force decreased (p=0.010) while non-dominant leg did not (p=0.075). Finally, bilateral echo-intensity (muscle quality) increased post-season (both p<0.001), denoting increased intramuscular fat. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate conflicting lower body bone findings, indicating total hip BMD improvement but reduction at the highly loaded, femoral neck region. In addition, force production decreased coinciding with an uptake of intramuscular fat. Fatigue induced by accumulation of seasonal mileage may be responsible for this force decrease. Furthermore, while detrimental to muscle quality on the surface, an increase in intramuscular fat may be beneficial to athletes given cross-country’s metabolic requirements. These XC induced musculoskeletal and force adaptations warrant athlete assessment across multiple seasons to further identify seasonal change.


F-08     Joe Hengemuhle

Research Collaborators:  Olivia Anderson, Sloane Montgomery, Allen Redinger, Shawn Allen, Nicholas Spokely

Research Presentation Title:  Skeletal Adaptations by Position of Play

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bree Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation


INTRODUCTION: Team sports competing at the collegiate level undergo training demands to achieve optimal performance. However, each position of play has specific training requirements, which may yield different skeletal adaptations, and potential risk of injury. PURPOSE: This preliminary report aims to explore position-specific skeletal adaptations in female collegiate softball athletes. METHODS: Twenty-four female Division I softball athletes who were 20±1 years old, 171.2 ±6.1 cm tall, and 75.6±13.6 kg heavy were stratified by position (catchers: n=3; infielders: n=6; utility players: n=4; outfielders: n=5; pitchers: n=6). All participants provided voluntary informed consent prior to completing two laboratory visits during pre-off season (August) and pre-regular season (January). All participants underwent a total body Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan followed by site-specific scans of the lumbar spine and dual hips to obtain bone mineral density (BMD) Z-Scores. RESULTS: Preliminary findings suggest season-dependent and position-dependent skeletal adaptations. For instance, from August 2023 to January 2024, total body BMD Z-Scores for the catchers, utility players, and pitchers decreased by 7%, 20%, and 5%, respectively. However, the infield and outfield players both increased by 4% and 7%, respectively. For lumbar spine BMD Z-Scores, all positions had a decline between 1-5%, with the exception of utility players and catchers who had an increase of 20% and 3%, respectively. For mean hip BMD Z-Scores, utility, outfielders, and pitchers each had a decrease of less than 2%. However, the Z-Scores of the catchers decreased by 6%, which was three times greater than the rest of the other positions. DISCUSSION: All positions comparatively exhibit different trends that suggest skeletal adaptations are position-dependent due to specific physical training requirements. These observations suggest that utility players may yield the most drastic skeletal adaptations, and thus, may require more specialized training activities to retain bone health in athletes. However, due to such a small sample size, conclusions cannot yet be generalized, and these athletes will continue to be monitored closely.  


F-09     Regan Smith

Research Collaborators:  Olivia Anderson, Allen Redinger, Emery Mintz, Caleb Voskuil, Jason Mogonye, Joshua Carr

Research Presentation Title:  Musculoskeletal Tissue Asymmetries Over Time Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Faculty Research Mentor:  Bree Baker, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation


INTRODUCTION: Time since surgery is a reference point used by many practitioners for patients who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to return to sport. For instance, the first two postoperative years are often considered the most high-risk reinjury period. The degree of musculoskeletal tissue asymmetries may influence recovery and reinjury risk. PURPOSE: This study evaluated the influence of time since ACLR surgery on various musculoskeletal tissue asymmetries. METHODS: Twenty-two participants with a history of unilateral ACLR were grouped by time since surgery: (0-2 years, n=8), (2-5 years, n=7), and (5+ years, n=7). All participants provided voluntary informed consent before undergoing a single total body Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan to assess body composition and bone measures. Inter-limb asymmetry indices (AI%) were calculated for bone mineral content (BMC; g), lean mass (LM; kg), and Fat%. Additionally, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to assess AI% between groups, with Cohen’s effect sizes (d), and α≤0.05. RESULTS: Participants that had undergone ACLR within 0-2 years had greater BMC, LM, and Fat% asymmetries in comparison to those who were 2-5 years and 5+ years post-op; although statistical significance was not met (p≥0.057, d=0.4-1.5), this large effect size suggests a meaningful change and could have clinical implications. The AI% between limbs for BMC improved by 0.9% from 0-2 years to 2-5 years (p=0.057, d=0.93), but did not reach symmetry until 5+ years post-ACLR. Further, LM followed a similar pattern and became more symmetrical over time, but still showed a 3.5% deficit in the ACLR limb by 5+ years (p=0.101, d=0.5-1.2). However, Fat% asymmetries decreased to greatest extent by 2-5 years post-ACLR (p=0.067, d=0.92). CONCLUSION: These data suggest the first two years post-ACLR have the greatest musculoskeletal asymmetries compared to 2-5 years and 5+ years post ACLR. Furthermore, LM and BMC appears to recover very slowly, with significant deficits in the surgical limb observed even 5+ years post-op. Monitoring musculoskeletal tissue recovery post-ACLR likely has substantial clinical value in identifying the changes that precede the development of osteoarthritis following ACLR and for better identifying those at elevated risk for reinjury.


F-10     Kinsleigh Thomas

Research Collaborators:  Jason Miller

Research Presentation Title:  Hip Range of Motion as a Predictor of Hip Pain in Former Female Athletes

Faculty Research Mentor:  Jason Miller, Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation


Hip pain is a prevalent issue in many female former high school athletes. The purpose of the study was to exam the relationship between anterior hip pain and the active range of motion (ROM) of the hip. Participants completed a Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), which included a composite pain score (COMP) and visual analog scale (VAS), to quantify hip pain during exercise. Participants self-reported height, weight, age, and sports and years played while in high school. A five minute warm up on a stationary bike preceded the assessment of hip ROM. Following the warmup, active hip flexion (FLEX), extension (EXT), and external (ER) and internal rotation (IR) was measured. Each measurement of hip ROM was measured (in degrees) three times for each leg. The average score from the measurements of hip ROM was calculated and utilized for analysis. Anterior hip pain, both the VAS and COMP from the SF-MPQ was correlated (Pearson coefficient) with the number of sports seasons played, and hip IR and ER, FLEX and EXT active range of motion. Contralateral ratios of hip ROM were also correlated with the scores from the SF-MPQ. Strong correlations were observed between the composite pain scale and ER (r=-0.74 for both the right and left), as well as the ER:IR ratio (r = 0.71). Strong correlations were observed between the right and left FLEX (r = 0.91 and r = 0.82, respectively), and the FLEX:EXT ratio (r = 0.92) with the visual analogue scale (VAS). There were also notable differences (ER:IR and FLEX:EXT ratios) between the athletes that had a VAS that was greater than one and those that did not. It appears that female former high school athletes that experience anterior hip pain possess a deficit in hip ER and EXT, and greater hip FLEX.  


F-11     Elsa Berry

Research Presentation Title:  Passing to Play: Examining Student-athlete Academic Motivation

Faculty Research Mentor:  Sarah J. Donovan, Teaching, Learning, and Educational Sciences


Student-athletes at all levels are tasked with managing academic success and athletic performance simultaneously. Many of these students may only achieve passing grades in order to remain eligible to participate in their sport. In this study, I seek to understand 1) how is the practice of “staying eligible” the strongest source of motivation to succeed academically for high school-level student-athletes, and 2) how are coaches and teachers contributing to the motivation of high school-level student-athletes? While a significant amount of research exists on college level student-athletes and academic motivation, there is little research on this within high school age student-athletes. To gain insight on this, I am conducting a survey with Oklahoma high school students who are or were student-athletes, and the professionals who work with this body of students. Within the survey it asks demographic information as well as questions about their academic performance generally and its relationship to their athletic participation. It also includes the opportunity to be interviewed and answer further questions to examine personal motivations and influences on academic performance. This study is currently being conducted and once the data is collected, it will be coded for common themes across the participants' answers. It is anticipated that there will be a large population of students who indicate that their main source of academic motivation is to remain eligible for their sport, and that some education professionals may agree with their schools’ models and approaches to this issue, while others may not. Knowing what motivates this population of students can influence teaching practices, administration, and school policies, as well as how teachers, coaches, and other staff members frame academics in relation to these students’ athletic endeavors. By understanding how students are motivated, their experience and success in school can be improved.  



F-12     Elise Braggs

Research Presentation Title:  How The Open-Access Model Impacts Viewer Relationship and Interaction:  A Close Investigation of Different Visions: New Perspectives on Medieval Art

Faculty Research Mentor:  Jennifer Borland, Art, Graphic Design, and Art History


My research explores the momentum of the open access movement in academic publishing. According to Cornell University Library, open access is defined as “scholarly literature that complies with peer-review processes and maintains high publishing standards while remaining free of charge and carrying less restrictive copyright and licensing barriers than traditionally published works” (Suber, 2023).1 This paradigm shift from subscription-based to open access journals raises intriguing questions about the OA model’s impact on engagement, particularly within art history and the humanities, and how it compares given a cross-disciplinary analysis.  My presentation will delve into the multifaceted landscape of open access publishing by using a case study approach centered on the open-access journal Different Visions: New Perspectives on Medieval Art, which is dedicated to medieval art history. By analyzing data obtained from the journal's website regarding site visits and interaction throughout time, the study investigates the spectrum of interaction facilitated by open access platforms. The use of this journal as a primary source offers insight into the nuanced dynamics of operating an open-access publication, along with the credibility of academic journals functioning under this model. My presentation also uses information from The Journal of Academic Librarianship as a baseline to discuss the varying types of open access publishing; specifically, the different goals and functionality between gold and green open access.2 Referencing this source helps to better contextualize the case study within the larger field of open access journals used in art history. As academia navigates these transformations, understanding the implications of open access publishing becomes imperative for shaping the future of academic communication. This research uses a comparative lens, extending across publication models to discern the model with the most successful interaction between publication and audience while further exploring the model’s influence on scholarly discourse.


F-13     Jillian Eckert

Research Presentation Title:  TikTok Poetry: The Death of Art or a New Frontier?

Faculty Research Mentor:  Lisa Hollenbach, English


Poetry as an art form shifts and evolves alongside new developments in communication and technology. The emergence of TikTok has provided a new medium for poets to experiment with. This thesis will investigate how poets engage with TikTok’s trends, algorithms, and formats. Much like popular Instagram poetry during the 2010s, TikTok poetry tends to be broad in an effort to be relatable and easy to consume. However, the app’s unique combination of audio and visual elements adds a new dimension to poetry written for social media: sound. TikTok poets certainly draw inspiration from slam poetry, though with a few significant departures. TikTok poetry also follows trends and is largely written to gain followers and popularity, not just for the sake of writing poetry. Its surface-level nature also garners criticism from people who don’t consider it “real poetry.” However, there are some instances of TikTok users stumbling upon poetry as a vehicle for critiquing the state of society and internet culture at large. Alongside the poems reminiscent of popular Instapoetry, a whole new type of TikTok poetry is emerging—the type that can only exist because of TikTok itself.


F-14     Lily Harrel

Research Collaborators:  Robert Redmon

Research Presentation Title:  Engagement and Performance: Evaluating Genre Acquisition in Tech-Mediated Writing Courses

Faculty Research Mentor:  Steph Link, English


Research publication is a necessary step in contributing knowledge across disciplines and participating in discipline-specific communities. In its importance, effective dissemination of research requires a specific rhetorical outline to suit the needs of the published research writing. The technical nature of the research writing genre creates a barrier for many researchers attempting to publish their work. Misunderstanding the conventions of the genre, students may produce less effective writing that prevents them from publishing. Writing workshops offering reading and writing support with a tech-mediated class design can assist students in gaining a deeper awareness of discipline-specific research writing genres for publication. The 4-week writing workshop in this study was facilitated through Canvas and Dissemity, an AI learning platform utilizing the CARS model for genre-based learning (Swales). The workshop took users through five modules that let students explore the requirements of a research introduction, learn its necessary rhetorical moves and steps, and apply what had been learned. Canvas allowed students to reflect on the modules and how they felt about the activities. Weekly, students engaged in Dissemity module activities paired with learning module videos before writing one reflection post and two replies to peers in Canvas. In the final week, students provided a final introduction draft for peer review that was revised based on course lessons and activities. In this study, we sought to determine if differing levels of engagement with the course affected students’ genre acquisition. We measured students’ course completion across the weeks and analyzed the content of the discussion posts, module activities, and peer review for the final drafts. The analysis of written content was a combination of thematic, sentiment, and move/step analysis. The similarity of initial and final introduction drafts and the presence of metalanguage in peer review were also assessed. Students were found to vary in engagement, and increased levels of engagement seem to lend to the improvement of genre awareness, evaluation, and production. The patterns highlight the importance of collaborative learning activities and digital tools for learning genres, as well as the need for collaborative engagement in tech-mediated writing courses. 


F-15     Katie Leigh, Jackson Dillingham, Jodi Tarbet

Research Collaborators:  Richard Frohock

Research Presentation Title:  William Snelgrave’s Account (1734): An Early 18th Century Perspective on Africa, Slavery, and Piracy

Faculty Research Mentor:  Richard Frohock, English


Our presentation analyzes William Snelgrave’s A New Account of Some Parts of Guinea and the Slave-Trade (1734), particularly his use of the first-person anecdote in his attempt to justify the slave trade to his readers. Rhetorically, Snelgrave relies on building pathos through his depictions of Africa and the slave trade to play on readers’ emotions and sensibility. Ironically, he depicts the slave-trader as a hero who loves freedom and fights human rights abuses, as he tries to provide readers with consolations for the transatlantic slave trade. Each of the three books of the Account contributes to this theme from a distinct perspective. The first provides a history of Africa that emphasizes the barbarity of the African nations he encounters and trades with. In several anecdotes, he describes himself as rescuing Africans from violent deaths by purchasing them and selling them into slavery. Book II gives an inside perspective on the logistics of the slave trade and includes Snelgrave’s most direct arguments in support of the slave trade, recounting the many mutinies and rebellions he experiences as examples of a need for amelioration rather than abolition. Book three shifts directions significantly, offering an account of Snelgrave’s experiences when his ship is taken over by pirates. Although implicit, Snelgrave’s condemnation of lawless pirates provides readers with another way to be persuaded of the good character of the slave trader. Our analysis of this eighteenth-century text is timely, as current politicians have sought to limit and/or remove African American history from the curriculum and to depict slavery as in some ways beneficial to the enslaved. This slave-trader’s account contains uncomfortable resonances with today’s ideological attacks on public education. 


F-16     Kori Travis

Research Collaborators:  Sara Loss

Research Presentation Title:  Gender Performance in Oklahoma English

Faculty Research Mentor:  Sara Loss, English


People have ideas on the differences in how women and men speak (“3 Social Factors,” 2010), and Oklahomans are likely no different. For men and women, the way they talk can contribute to how they perform their gender. “Such acts, gestures, enactments, generally construed, are performative in the sense that the essence or identity that they otherwise purport to express are fabrications manufactured and sustained through corporeal signs and other discursive means” (Butler 1990, 119). We should look at ideas about how men and women talk here in Oklahoma in particular because it is at the intersection between Midland and Southern dialect. The Southern dialect is stigmatized, with connotations of people who speak it being “unintelligent,” or “hick,” but also “hospitable” or “macho” (Campell-Kibler 2011, 55). On the other hand, the Midland dialect is less stigmatized. 

 I have asked five men and five women in Oklahoma if “boys from girls and men from women talk different around here?” Three participants did not comment on a difference, and one older woman felt that there is a difference but could not comment on it. When people had an opinion, some noted specific features (N=2). Interestingly, four participants hinted that women sound more professional while men here tend to sound more like “hicks,” maybe even on purpose, as one older woman said. Two of the participants, both younger males, are outliers to these views, as they both noticed a difference, but gave answers on sound rather than attitude. The results of these interviews indicate that a “hick” or southern way of talking is one tool men use to perform their gender; in contrast, a “professional” way of talking, which may pair with a Midlands dialect, is one way some women perform their gender. 


F-17     Amanda Weaver, Sydney Gaddis, Akadienne Hamby, Bethany Merino, Justice Rebman, Lewsi Roek, Brayton Whiteley

Research Presentation Title:  Oklahomans Might Can Use Double Modals

Faculty Research Mentor:  Sara Loss, English


Double modals, which are more than one modal in a row, such as I might could stop by or I usta could run far, are a feature of Appalachia and Texas English (Di Paolo 1989, Hasty 2014). Interestingly, each dialect area has different reported patterns of use. We know that Oklahoma has influences from both of these dialect regions (Southard 1983); however, we do not know if or how (like Texas or Appalachia) double modals can be used in Oklahoma, as no fieldwork has been done here.  We searched 76 randomly chosen oral histories from the Centennial Farms and Oklahoma 100-year Life collections in the Oklahoma Oral History Research Program (2012) as well as interviewed 34 Oklahomans from around the state about their double modal use. We found that double models are a feature of Oklahoma English, as an example was found in an oral history and 94% (N=32) of respondents self-report some double modal use. However, some respondents (24%; N=8) can only use quasi-double modal constructions (e.g., “usta could”). Robust double modal users (six types or more) are usually from smaller communities and self-identify as typical Oklahomans.  Double modal use in Oklahoma looks more like the Appalachian dialect than the Texas dialect, although Oklahoma English has some unique features. Like Appalachian English, double modals do not need to match for tense. In fact, “might can” was the double modal construction most respondents self-reported using (50%; N=17). Also, the Appalachian pattern for yes-no questions was overwhelmingly preferred over the Texas pattern. All respondents who can make yes-no questions reported the Appalachian pattern; only one user from the border area near Texas reported using both patterns. Oklahoma English is unique in that negation cannot occur between modal verbs, as it can in both Appalachian and Texas English; Oklahomans generally self-report saying, “I might can’t come tonight” and not “I might not can come tonight.” Despite the proximity to Texas, historical ties to Appalachia continue to influence Oklahoma’s dialect. 


F-18     Lara Petty

Research Presentation Title:  Trailblazing Borders: Exploring the Legal Legacy of Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher as the First Black Woman Admitted to University of Oklahoma Law School

Faculty Research Mentor:  Greg Kosc, History


Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher made history in 1949 by being the first Black woman admitted to the University of Oklahoma Law School. Not only did Fisher's entrance into the school challenge racial segregation in legal education, but it also cleared the path for subsequent generations of minority students to seek legal careers. 

Starting with historical background, the study places Fisher's admission in the larger context of the mid-20th century civil rights struggle. It looks at the warped admissions policies of the era and emphasizes the structural obstacles for African Americans who wanted to practice law. Fisher's daring choice to overcome these obstacles by applying to the University of Oklahoma Law School will be contextualized by illustrating the interplay of race, law, and education during the post-war period. Using original sources such as newspaper stories, court records, NAACP archival records, and private letters, the study examines the legal tactics Fisher and her team employed to gain admittance via the historic case of Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma (1948). 

Additionally, this paper investigates the wider effects of Fisher's admission. It evaluates the significance of her trailblazing accomplishment in tearing down racial barriers in legal education and encouraging greater inclusion and diversity in the legal field. The study also looks at Fisher's later legal career and her continued civil rights activity, emphasizing her legacy as a pioneer for social justice and racial equality. In summary, this study's goal is to advance our knowledge of Ada Fisher's historical contributions to the advancement of racial equality in the legal field. This study illuminates the significance of her legacy in influencing the development of the American legal system. 


F-19     Charley Johnson

Research Presentation Title:  AI Consciousness: Reevaluating through Embodied Cognition

Faculty Research Mentor:  Shannon Spaulding, Philosophy


In August of 2023, a group of multidisciplinary researchers released a rubric for attributing consciousness to artificial intelligence systems.Their paper explicitly presupposed computational functionalism in building the criteria for consciousness. Computational functionalism is a philosophy of mind and cognitive science framework that equates mental states to computational information states and implies that a body is unnecessary for cognition.This idea that mental and physical processes are essentially distinct stems from Cartesian Dualism, which, despite facing significant problems, still deeply influences the science of consciousness.3  While there are valuable insights to be gained from constructing a checklist for AI consciousness, if computational functionalism is used as a starting point, an accurate understanding of consciousness will not be achieved. The mind’s processes are not independent from the body, and they cannot be stripped down to mere information processing, as this ignores the rich interaction of the body and mind. In a research paper developed last semester, I analyzed the theoretical literature on embodied cognition, consciousness, artificial intelligence, and robotics. From this analysis I argued that by observing the mind and body’s participation in consciousness in tandem, the biological role of consciousness can be explained, sensation-seeking behaviors could be used to identify consciousness, and most importantly, that having a body may be critical to motivating thought.  The embodied framework of consciousness understands the phenomenon as a product of the continuous cycle of sensing and acting of an individual’s body. It suggests an AI system without the ability to sense and interact with the world around it could not experience consciousness, as there is no catalyst to motivate conscious thought. Understanding consciousness is not only philosophically intriguing but also ethically critical. While it is not widely held that the systems currently in use are conscious, the possibility of AI consciousness is a burgeoning consideration. Defining and understanding what creates conscious experience is incredibly important.


F-20     Caray Brannon

Research Collaborators:  Audrey Gramling 

Research Presentation Title: Tax Software and Its Usefulness: Are Tax Professional Users Satisfied?

Faculty Research Mentor:  Audrey Gramling, Accounting


Led by the primary investigator, this research aims to comprehensively assess the effectiveness and satisfaction levels associated with professional tax accounting software, with a primary focus on understanding tax professionals' experiences and preferences regarding their existing software solutions. To gauge user satisfaction thoroughly, a survey approach is employed, utilizing a scale to rate various factors. This includes questions about the ease of software setup, usability, and the quality of support received from software technicians. Additionally, the study investigates the software's compatibility with other tools and evaluates the adequacy of the provided software training. The significance of this research lies in its capacity to identify both strengths and areas for improvement in tax software. By discerning tax professionals' preferences, the study seeks to contribute to the enhancement of software functionality, ultimately making their work more manageable and potentially reducing stress. The overarching goal is to drive positive changes in tax software that can benefit the entire community of tax professionals.


F-21     Dechen Zhao

Research Presentation Title:  Asset Replacement Strategy Analysis in Agriculture During Pandemic

Faculty Research Mentor:  Hannah Shear, Agricultural Economics


Agricultural machinery has made a significant contribution to the development of U.S. agriculture. The flat topography of the main agricultural regions of the central United States also facilitates the work of machinery. As the second largest asset class on farms after land, a sound machinery purchasing strategy is beneficial to the economic condition of farms. (Ibendahl & Griffin, 2021). Analyzing the various aspects of machinery marginal cost to its marginal benefit to find the optimal point to replace machinery as well as how to finance will make farms more rational and efficient. In the post epidemic era, lingering impacts and high interest rates have impacted farm management in the U.S. Finding efficient and reasonable machinery purchasing strategies is even more important in today's economic environment.


F-22     Kaetlyn Freideman

Research Presentation Title:  Enhancing Sustainable Fisheries Management: Exploring Angler Perspectives and Stream Fishing in Oklahoma Streams.

Faculty Research Mentor:  Thapa Bhawna, Agricultural Economics


Oklahoma's streams, rivers, and reservoirs are home to diverse fish species and are important for the local economy and various recreational activities. However, significant changes in these ecosystems over the past decade highlight the need for updated data analysis to assess evolving trends in anglers' perspectives and fishing experiences. This study focuses on the Illinois River and tributaries of Lake Tenkiller in eastern Oklahoma, utilizing survey-based methods to assess the recreational and socioeconomic characteristics of stream anglers in the region. The analyses will include frequency counts to determine the prevalence of different angling practices and preferences among respondents. Mean and median values will be calculated for variables such as catch rates, fishing hours, and expenditures to gain insights into the average angler's experiences and economic contributions. Overall, these summary descriptive statistics will provide updated and crucial information for fisheries management by the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation (ODWC) to ensure angler satisfaction in eastern Oklahoma, ultimately contributing to the sustainable management of natural resources and the enhancement of recreational fishing experiences and opportunities. 


F-23     Karsen Jones

Research Collaborators:  Brian Whitacre

Research Presentation Title:  Medical Marijuana Dispensary Impacts on Local Sales Tax Revenue

Faculty Research Mentor:  Brian Whitacre, Agricultural Economics


In 2018, the State of Oklahoma legalized medical marijuana - a policy shift that has impacted the quality of life in communities of all sizes. While much of the prevailing media coverage has been negative (highlighting the associated crime, use of water resources, and workforce impacts), there are also positive aspects. Among these positive aspects is the significant contribution of medical marijuana dispensaries to local economies through the generation of sales tax revenue. This study combines city-level data on the number of dispensaries (provided by the Oklahoma Medical Marijuana Authority) with local sales tax revenue data collected from the Oklahoma Tax Commission.  Because the tax commission data has a specific line item for dispensaries, each city will have information on the amount of dispensary revenue raised, allowing us to calculate the percentage of all sales tax revenue contributed by medical marijuana. The results are broken out in a variety of ways, including per-dispensary revenue in smaller vs. larger towns. We also examine whether more significant impacts are found in communities bordering other states where medical marijuana is illegal. Lastly, we explore the relationships between dispensary tax revenue and local disability, unemployment, and uninsurance rates across the state and among the different population groups. Evaluating the impact on local sales tax coffers and assessing the types of communities that benefit the most from this industry will be of interest to city governments across Oklahoma as well as the seven Southern states where medical marijuana is legal. 


F-24     Anabeth Livingston

Research Presentation Title:  U.S. and Japan Trade Agreement Effect on U.S. Beef Exports

Faculty Research Mentor:  Aleks Shaefer, Agricultural Economics


The United States and Japan entered into a new trade agreement on January 1st, 2020. The United States and Japan Trade Agreement (USJTA) was put into effect with the intention of lowering tariffs on many commodities, one of them being beef and beef products. This part of the agreement also sought to eliminate the earlier restrictions placed on this commodity between the United States (U.S.) and Japan. Our study seeks to empirically estimate the effects of the USJTA on U.S. beef exports to Japan. We constructed an econometric gravity model using monthly data from 2010-2023 from the UN Comtrade database. We find that the agreement generated a statistically significant increase in U.S.-Japan beef trade. After the agreement was implemented, our results show a 20% increase in the total value of United States fresh and chilled beef imported into Japan. However, we find no statistically significant change in the value of U.S. frozen beef imported into Japan. Overall, the USJTA has offered improved market access into Japan for U.S. beef. Future research could be conducted concerning the safeguard measures of the USJTA and how it will affect U.S. beef exports in the future.   


F-25     Cody Loganbill

Research Presentation Title:  Analyzing Oklahoma Agricultural Conservation Programs and Potential Producer Benefits

Faculty Research Mentor:  Amy Hagerman, Agricultural Economics


Conservation has always been closely intertwined with agriculture and rural community vitality. Agricultural producers are stewards of significant portions of arable land, and the long-term viability of their business is closely linked with water availability and quality, soil health and nutrition, and weather favorability. Public policy related to conservation practices can be dated back to the Dust Bowl in the 1930s and the soil bank. In recent years, the public has become more focused on agricultural conservation and sustainability. Socially optimal levels of conservation activities may not always align with the privately optimal levels of agricultural producers’ voluntary conservation program participation. Various conservation programs and incentives have been offered to farmers to help achieve national conservation and environmental goals in the United States, with funding dollars for those programs increasing significantly through the Inflation Reduction Act of 2021 and more recently through the Climate Smart Agriculture Investments Program. These programs offer financial incentives for producers to adopt conservation practices that may be cost-prohibitive otherwise, especially in the early adoption period of transitioning production. This poster will focus on conservation programs available to Oklahoma agricultural producers and research already available regarding benefits and costs to producers. It will also overview and present an analytical framework for how climate-smart initiatives may benefit both the land and producer through carbon mitigation, soil health, increased yields, and other variables. Informing producers of conservation programs can increase interest, enhance stewardship ethics, and answer concerns regarding a perceived over-bureaucratic application process. This research project is mid-process but will eventually analyze the costs and benefits of climate-smart program participation in an economic framework. Concluding this project, a fact sheet will be released to inform producers of resources available to their operations and how to profitably incorporate a conservation program.


F-26     Eddy Iyonsi

Research Collaborators:  Chou Yuting

Research Presentation Title:  DroughtChat: Connecting Online Voices to Real-World Drought

Faculty Research Mentor:  Chou Yuting, Geography

Understanding the dynamics of public awareness is crucial for developing targeted strategies to communicate and address drought-related issues. This research aims to understand public’s awareness of drought in the U.S. using the Google Trends data and the U.S. Drought Monitor.  The study addresses the following questions: 

  • How severe/long the drought must be before start paying attention to it?
  • When will people stop paying attention to drought and why?
  • What are the spatial variations of people’s attention to drought and the driving factors?

To address these questions, rather than relying solely on large-scale data, this study delves into the mindset of individuals to gain a deeper understanding of their perceptions of drought. Daily Google Trends data were obtained using the Pytrends API and temporally aggregated from daily to weekly using R, aligning with the temporal resolution of USDM data. Additionally, a localized and detailed analysis was conducted through a questionnaire designed with Survey123 to capture the complex perspectives of individuals regarding drought awareness. The study revealed that the population, rather than just the areas directly affected by drought, plays a more significant role in correlating with drought awareness. Furthermore, a lag in public attention to extreme droughts was identified, indicating a nuanced relationship between public awareness and drought severity.

These findings provide valuable insights into the factors influencing public attention to drought, offering a subtle understanding of the spatial variations in awareness. 

In conclusion, this research contributes to our understanding of the intricate interplay between public awareness and drought severity. Through the analysis of Google Trends data, the U.S. Drought Monitor and insights from a localized survey designed with Survey123, this study unveils key patterns in public awareness of drought, providing actionable insights for targeted communication strategies and proactive drought mitigation efforts. The integration of these data sources not only enhances our understanding of public perceptions of drought, but also equips policymakers with valuable information to tailor interventions and resource allocation, ultimately bolstering our capacity to proactively address and mitigate the impacts of drought.


F-27     Beatrice Kim

Research Presentation Title:  Assessing the Impact of Hospital Closures on Health Disparities in Rural Oklahoma: A GIS-Based Approach

Faculty Research Mentor:  Tao Hu, Geography


Health disparities between rural and urban communities in Oklahoma have been significantly highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic, compounded by the closure of several hospitals. This study investigates the impact of these closures on health outcomes and preventive measures in rural Oklahoma. Initially, we extracted information on hospital closures and utilized Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to geographically code their locations. Subsequently, we employed GIS methodologies to estimate travel times from hospitals to the communities within various time intervals: 15, and 30 minutes. By integrating data on chronic diseases from the CDC at the county level, we were able to compare health outcomes, health status, health risk and preventive behaviors before and after the hospital closures. Furthermore, we developed an online GIS dashboard to visually represent the spatial distribution of hospitals, their travel time catchment areas, and the health data of impacted communities. This platform offers a comprehensive overview of how hospital resources affect local communities, enabling precise decision-making to enhance rural health and reduce disparities between rural and urban areas. 


F-28     Abby Livingston

Research Presentation Title:  Oklahoma’s Summer Climate and Irrigated Agriculture

Faculty Research Mentor:  Saber Brasher, Geography


Irrigation has become a critical part of farming in Oklahoma. The drier western half of the state receives as little as 17 inches of average rainfall, even as agriculture dominates these areas. The limited precipitation has created a necessity for irrigation for crop production in Oklahoma, particularly for crops grown during the hot summer season and during periods of sustained drought. Precipitation variability is increasing in Oklahoma, with both extremes in high magnitude precipitation events and sustained dry periods becoming more common. Understanding the dynamics between Oklahoma’s changing climate and irrigation is critical for farmers to develop best management practices and make smart water decisions. This study employs 30-meter resolution irrigation data from the Landsat-based irrigation dataset (LANID) and the United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service Quick Stats to assess Oklahoma’s irrigation frequency and distribution. This data is paired with historical climate data to study the relationships between Oklahoma’s changing climate and irrigation. As the climate continues to trend hotter and the demand for irrigation increases, evaluating the correlations between the climate and water usage will be instrumental in understanding Oklahoma’s agriculture under climate change. 


F-29     Ava Barger

Research Collaborators:  Willie Tao 

Research Presentation Title:  Ethnic cuisine and community: Hakka restaurants and cultural bonds in Canada

Faculty Research Mentor:  Willie Tao, Hospitality and Tourism Management


The Hakka people have spent centuries carrying their culture across the globe as they searched for a higher quality of life (Dao, 2019). Because of their many relocations throughout history, they have been shaped by the various cultures they engaged with. During their many migrations, a fusion cuisine was born. Hakka cuisine is an excellent example of how food serves as a tangible expression of culture and history. 

The Canadian population is 20% immigrants, so there is a substantial number of Hakka restaurants in Canada. Hakka restaurants in Canada serve a wide range of dishes that vary from traditional Hakka dishes to Indian Hakka fusions. These restaurants have been extremely successful and serve the community as a place for immigrants to get a taste of home, and for other ethnic groups to experience Hakka culture through food (Lee, et al. 2018). The success of Hakka restaurants represents more than just the prosperity of the business, it represents a victory for the Hakkas of the past who fought for a better life for their families. Today, when Hakka restaurants experience success, it validates the historical efforts of past Hakkas and proves their fight for respect was not for nothing. 

Most literature pertaining to the Hakka people focuses on their past, particularly their history of immigration. However, focusing on the present and future of the Hakka people is equally important to the preservation of their culture. This study highlights the present lives of Hakka Canadians and how their culture is shared through food. This study aims to support Canadian Hakka restaurant owners by offering insights into the public's opinion of Hakka restaurants. The authors gathered insight into the customers' opinions through Hakka restaurants’ online reviews and used big data analytics through text-mining to provide insights to the Hakka restaurants. This study identifies the areas for improvement so Hakka restaurants can implement change and enhance their operation. These implications will increase positive public opinions regarding Hakka restaurants which in turn paints Hakka culture as a whole in a more positive light. 


F-30     Ethan Bunch

Research Presentation Title:  The future of lodging services

Faculty Research Mentor:  Jinyoung Im, Hospitality and Tourism Management


The research objective of this project is to investigate how consumer demands are changing in different aspects of the hospitality industry. This paper will explain in detail how consumer demands have changed in the hospitality industry, specifically the lodging side between individual customers and group consumers. The Reserarch paper will identify trends within the industry, as well as the past and present techniques that will help us understand how the market has adjusted and the new direction it’s headed in. We will focus on the different trends of consumer demands within individual bookings and group bookings. A key aspect that will be explored during this paper is the consumer needs for sales and events and how these are adjusting pre-covid and now with security threats still a concern to larger events.  


F-31     Jackson Silvey

Research Presentation Title:  Stroke Prediction in Patients with Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis using Electronic Health Records

Faculty Research Mentor:  Xiao Luo, Management Science and Information Systems


Background: Between 11% and 15% of strokes manifest as the initial neurological event linked to asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis (ACS). Hence, it is critical to identify the ACS patients at higher risk of stroke and provide corresponding invasive treatment. Development of a computational model to estimate the probability of developing stroke using the data already available within electronic health records (EHR) would be of value to enhance stroke intervention and prevent stroke. Most of the existing research on stroke detection in ACS patients either utilized observational data prospectively collected from patient populations with certain diseases or only relied on biomedical imaging data. This research fills the gap by utilizing EHR data to increase sarcopenia detection.

Methods: We developed and evaluated six machine learning approaches to analyze the structured data in the EHR for stroke prediction.  All EHR data before a patient developed stroke or the recent biomedical imaging exam to determine the severe carotid stenosis were used for model building and evaluation. Diagnosis codes were normalized using the ICD code (e.g., E11.2 is normalized to E11). Lab test values were normalized to low, normal/within range, high, or abnormal. The medications are grouped into medication categories (e.g., Medication Hydrocodone-Acetaminophen is grouped to category Analgesics) based on the information of National Drug Directory. A feature selection method was used to reduce the number of features and improve performance. SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) was then used to interpret the results to indicate the overall risk factors and risk factors for each patient. Results: There are total of 983 patients in the study cohort, among which 460 patients developed stroke and 523 patients did not develop stroke. The top performing model was Random Forest classifier with selected 580 features. The gained area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) is 0.639. The SHAP interpretation shows that the risk factors included high glucose, high LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, without taking diuretics, cardiovascular, antianginal, antihypertensives medications. Conclusions: Our research demonstrates that stroke in patients with ACS can be predicted from structured data in EHR, which may be developed through future studies to facilitate large-scale early detection and intervention in clinical populations.


F-32     Scarlett Dyer

Research Collaborators:  Rosemary Avance

Research Presentation Title:  Does Optimism for the Future Affect Anxiety in Queer Indigenous College Students?

Faculty Research Mentor:  Rosemary Avance, Media and Strategic Communications


Background: Minority and marginalized groups experience higher rates of mental health disorders. In particular, both the LGBTQ+ community and American Indians/Alaskan Natives (AI/AN, or Indigenous) report higher rates of general depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders (Balsam et al., 2004), which may be linked to a history of social discrimination (Alilbudbud, 2023). More specifically, the queer Indigenous population has higher rates of childhood physical abuse, familial trauma, depression, drug/alcohol use, and mental health service utilization than heterosexual Indigenous people (Balsam et al., 2004). Perhaps counterintuitively, college educated or high income queer Indigenous people are at a higher risk for symptoms of major depression, generalized anxiety, or substance dependence/abuse problems than those with less educated or lower income (Parker et al., 2017). Experiences of discrimination are associated with lower resilience in AI/AN (Lafromboise, 2006). Among Indigenous people, social support is essential to well-being and resilience, particularly a connection to community and culture (Brennan et al., 2021). Location (urban vs. rural) also affects resilience levels due to associated challenges (ibid.). My project, currently in the proposal stage, explores the relationship between resilience and mental health among queer Indigenous OSU students.

Method: After obtaining IRB permissions, I will modify the GAD0-7 and Brief Resilience scale and administer an online survey to a population of queer Indigenous OSU students and a general OSU student population control. The results will be analyzed for correlations between reported identity characteristics (Indigenous vs. non-Indigenous, and LGTBQ+ vs. non-LGBTQ+) to understand mental health patterns and resilience factors among these populations. Results: Because queer Indigenous OSU students are a small population, I do not expect the results to be generalizable. Instead, I will contribute to a broader body of knowledge about university mental health patterns. I hypothesize that, following the literature, queer Indigenous OSU students likely experience higher rates of general anxiety but higher rates of resilience.  Conclusion: Queer Indigenous students are at higher risk of mental health problems (Balsam et al., 2004). Results of this survey may help provide evidence for improved support services at OSU. Future research should replicate this study to solidify results. 


F-33     Lindsey Smith

Research Collaborators:  Rosemary Avance

Research Presentation Title:  Navigating Inclusion: Assessing LGBTQ+ Mental Health Support and Resources at Oklahoma State University in a Politically Conservative Landscape

Faculty Research Mentor:  Rosemary Avance, Media and Strategic Communications


Throughout higher education, LGBTQ+ college students have often encountered unwelcoming campus environments. Despite progress in LGBTQ+ inclusion, universities and colleges continue to fall short in offering sufficient support and services tailored to the needs of LGBTQ+ students. Research has explored LGBTQ+ resources on campuses nationwide; however, little attention has been paid to feelings of inclusion and support through resources within campuses in politically conservative states. The present study aims to fill this gap by identifying barriers to LGBTQ+ inclusion on the Oklahoma State University (OSU) campus, including resource scarcity, institutional policies, and cultural attitudes, to inform targeted interventions and advocacy efforts. Specifically, the study evaluates the inclusivity of mental health resources for the LGBTQ+ community at OSU by analyzing available resources and surveying LGBTQ+ students. The objective is to gauge LGBTQ+ students' experiences of support through campus mental health services and to investigate how the political climate affects inclusion. By employing a comprehensive survey questionnaire, the study aims to provide insights into overall feelings of support and inclusion. This study also evaluates the scope and depth of mental health services offered at OSU. It assesses the cultural competency of mental health resources, examining factors such as the availability of LGBTQ+ affirmative therapy, culturally relevant treatment approaches, and visibility of LGBTQ+-affirming materials. Through these measures, the study comprehensively assesses the inclusivity of mental health resources for LGBTQ+ students at OSU and informs strategies for enhancing support and inclusion within the OSU community. 


F-34     Riley Walker

Research Presentation Title:  Social Media: NBA Players Leading the Way in Online Branding

Faculty Research Mentor:  Rachel Lim, Media and Strategic Communications


Background: Today, not only professional athletes, but also collegiate athletes need to effectively brand themselves. Social media has become a key platform for building their personal brand. Professional athletes use different strategies to build relationships with their audience. Studying the social media content of professional athletes, particularly their content engagement strategies, could offer valuable insights into effective branding practices for collegiate athletes. Research Objective: This study aims to investigate the most effective social media strategies employed by top NBA players through a content analysis. Specifically, it will examine the relationship between language styles (formal and informal) and post types (organic vs. brand endorsement) and their impact on user engagement metrics (e.g., likes, number of comments) on social media platforms.  Methods: To address the research questions, this study will conduct a content analysis of social media posts from six out of the top 25 NBA players (ESPN, 2022).  Specifically, this research will explore Instagram posts made by these six selected players between the year 2020 and 2023. Through the use of a code book, an itemization on the information collected from each post. The code book allows analysis of the data collected and sees trends and links in the data. Through a content analysis of the selected players’ Instagram, factors such as likes, comments, caption style, language style, and more will be studied.  Expected Results: This research expects to find links between the language style, post types and audience interaction (e.g., likes, number of comments) on social media platforms. There will be persistent trends among multiple players on social media to create an observation as to what style of post reaches its target audience the best. Implications: As NIL deals gain popularity, the importance of collegiate athletes improving their branding and cultivating a self-image has become more important than ever. Thus, the findings in this research will help college athletes learn what strategies work best when it comes to branding on social media. 



F-35     Maria Lopez

Research Collaborators:  Howard Sanborn 

Research Presentation Title:  An Analysis of Hong Kong's Legislative Council

Faculty Research Mentor:  Howard Sanborn, Political Science


The Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong has a history of exerting influence to other special regions regarding their social movements, but can the same be said for their legislative council (LegCo)? This research project’s main focus is on identifying and analyzing, if any, external factors that may contribute to the LegCo members’ views. Factors include if the members have studied abroad and what that can imply to their political ideologies. In this project, the objective relies on comprehending if external factors play an important role in members’ views and focuses.  


F-36     Amy Campbell

Research Collaborators:  Holley Hansen

Research Presentation Title: Deploying Feminism at the UN: Do More Gender Equal Missions Better Protect Civilian Populations?

Faculty Research Mentor:  Holley Hansen, Political Science


United Nations Resolution 1325 affirmed the UN’s commitment to including women in peacekeeping missions. Some scholarly work has examined the impact of increased women’s activity on mission effectiveness, but this work has largely been limited to case studies or theoretical arguments.  Even so, this work does suggest that missions with more women may be better able to interact with local populations, improve public attitudes towards missions, and help maintain greater internal accountability. Women police might be especially important as they would be able to gather more effective intelligence. We predict these factors would also make those missions more effective in supporting their peacekeeping mandates. To test this hypothesis, we use cross-national data from post-civil war African countries between 2006 and 2020 in which the UN deployed a peacekeeping mission with a civilian protection mandate. We specifically examine whether missions with more women serving as troops and police translate into a reduction in violence against civilians.


F-37     Madalene Gomez

Research Collaborators:  Stephen Nemeth 

Research Presentation Title:  Democratic Radicalism: How Intragroup Leader Selection Processes Affect Terrorism

Faculty Research Mentor:  Stephen Nemeth, Political Science


What effect do leadership selection processes have on terrorist organizations? This study investigates the ways terrorist groups select their leaders, acknowledging that there are a broad range of ways that leaders gain power - some through elections, others by means of familial relationships, and still others by the forcible seizure of power. Each of these should have a unique impact on group violence and the organization’s function. Drawing from a unique dataset of leader selection processes from over 700 groups, I argue that democratic leadership mechanisms lead to greater group activity and extended organizational lifespan. This occurs because members within “democratic” groups may feel a greater sense of agency and legitimacy because their voices are heard, and their participation valued. My findings have implications for counterterrorism; states may consider ways to undermine these selection processes - sowing doubt - and weaken group cohesion.

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